The Key to Nuclear Restraint: The Swedish Plans to Acquire Nuclear Weapons During the Cold War
Ilkka Taipale and Vappo Taipale. London, Routledge, In Medicine, Conflict and Survival, Vol.
A case Study of Sweden. Non-proliferation Paper No. Thomas Jonter and Emma Rosengren. Swedish Plans to acquire Nuclear Weapons, SKI Report Counties Foregoing nuclear Weapons, Helsinki, October , Remember me on this computer.
The key to nuclear restraint Thomas Jonter
Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. In their endeavor to claim legitimacy, the German cinematic representation of the American West became Nigel J. Ashton analyses Anglo-American relations during a crucial phase of the Cold War. He argues that although policy-makers on both sides of the Atlantic used the term 'interdependence' to describe their relationship this concept had different meanings in London Losing an Empire and Finding a Role: Britain,.
This book sheds fresh light on developments in British nuclear weapons policy between October , This book sheds fresh light on developments in British nuclear weapons policy between October , when the Labour Party came back into power under Harold Wilson following a thirteen year absence, and June when the Conservative government of Edward Dyson explains the convergence and divergence between British, French and German defence reforms in the Dyson explains the convergence and divergence between British, French and German defence reforms in the post-Cold War era.
He engages with cultural and realist theories and develops a neoclassical realist approach to change and stasis in defence policy, bringing new The proliferation of nuclear weapons has been defined as the gravest potential threat to international The proliferation of nuclear weapons has been defined as the gravest potential threat to international peace and security. The concept of nuclear deterrence has to be revisited in this regard.
The longer the Nuclear Weapon States hold on to their For more than forty years NATO premised its defence on credible nuclear deterrence. Underwriting this Underwriting this deterrence was NATO's strategy and the nuclear weapons and command and control systems intended to make the strategy an operational reality. This book examines NATO's Pressure to cancel Operation Crossroads came from scientists and diplomats. Manhattan Project scientists argued that further nuclear testing was unnecessary and environmentally dangerous.
A Los Alamos study warned "the water near a recent surface explosion will be a 'witch's brew' of radioactivity". To prepare the atoll for the nuclear tests, Bikini's native residents were evicted from their homes and resettled on smaller, uninhabited islands where they were unable to sustain themselves.
Radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing was first drawn to public attention in when a hydrogen bomb test in the Pacific contaminated the crew of the Japanese fishing boat Lucky Dragon. The incident caused widespread concern around the world and "provided a decisive impetus for the emergence of the anti-nuclear weapons movement in many countries".
Strategies of Nuclear Proliferation: How States Pursue the Bomb
Japanese opposition to the Pacific nuclear weapons tests was widespread, and "an estimated 35 million signatures were collected on petitions calling for bans on nuclear weapons". On November 1, , at the height of the Cold War , about 50, women brought together by Women Strike for Peace marched in 60 cities in the United States to demonstrate against nuclear weapons. It was the largest national women's peace protest of the 20th century. In , Linus Pauling and his wife presented the United Nations with the petition signed by more than 11, scientists calling for an end to nuclear-weapon testing.
The " Baby Tooth Survey ," headed by Dr Louise Reiss , demonstrated conclusively in that above-ground nuclear testing posed significant public health risks in the form of radioactive fallout spread primarily via milk from cows that had ingested contaminated grass. Kennedy and Nikita Khrushchev.
He was president of the scientific advisory board of the World Union for Protection of Life and also one of the signatories of the Dubrovnik-Philadelphia Statement. In the s, a movement for nuclear disarmament again gained strength in the light of the weapons build-up and statements of US President Ronald Reagan. Reagan had "a world free of nuclear weapons" as his personal mission,    and was largely scorned for this in Europe. There is an annual protest against U. In , the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize "for its work to draw attention to the catastrophic humanitarian consequences of any use of nuclear weapons and for its ground-breaking efforts to achieve a treaty-based prohibition of such weapons".
Its origins lay in the Communist Information Bureau 's Cominform doctrine, put forward , that the world was divided between peace-loving progressive forces led by the Soviet Union and warmongering capitalist countries led by the United States. In , Cominform directed that peace "should now become the pivot of the entire activity of the Communist Parties", and most western Communist parties followed this policy.
In , the WPC launched its Stockholm Appeal  calling for the absolute prohibition of nuclear weapons. The campaign won support, collecting, it is said, million signatures in Europe, most from socialist countries, including 10 million in France including that of the young Jacques Chirac , and million signatures in the Soviet Union — the entire adult population. The WPC had uneasy relations with the non-aligned peace movement and has been described as being caught in contradictions as "it sought to become a broad world movement while being instrumentalized increasingly to serve foreign policy in the Soviet Union and nominally socialist countries.
At first there was limited co-operation between such groups and the WPC, but western delegates who tried to criticize the Soviet Union or the WPC's silence about Russian armaments were often shouted down at WPC conferences  and by the early s they had dissociated themselves from the WPC.
After the Reykjavik Summit between U. When the extreme danger intrinsic to nuclear war and the possession of nuclear weapons became apparent to all sides during the Cold War, a series of disarmament and nonproliferation treaties were agreed upon between the United States, the Soviet Union, and several other states throughout the world.
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Many of these treaties involved years of negotiations, and seemed to result in important steps in arms reductions and reducing the risk of nuclear war. Only one country has been known to ever dismantle their nuclear arsenal completely—the apartheid government of South Africa apparently developed half a dozen crude fission weapons during the s, but they were dismantled in the early s.
Its goal is to promote nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation and the strengthening of the disarmament regimes in respect to other weapons of mass destruction , chemical and biological weapons. It also promotes disarmament efforts in the area of conventional weapons , especially land mines and small arms , which are often the weapons of choice in contemporary conflicts. It opened for signature on 20 September Despite a general trend toward disarmament in the early s, the George W.
Bush administration repeatedly pushed to fund policies that would allegedly make nuclear weapons more usable in the post—Cold War environment. Congress has refused to fund many of these policies. However, some  feel that even considering such programs harms the credibility of the United States as a proponent of nonproliferation.
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Former U. President-Elect Barack Obama pledged to "set a goal of a world without nuclear weapons, and pursue it. The United States has taken the lead in ensuring that nuclear materials globally are properly safeguarded. While this program has been deemed a success, many believe that its funding levels need to be increased so as to ensure that all dangerous nuclear materials are secured in the most expeditious manner possible.
The CTR program has led to several other innovative and important nonproliferation programs that need to continue to be a budget priority in order to ensure that nuclear weapons do not spread to actors hostile to the United States. While the vast majority of states have adhered to the stipulations of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, a few states have either refused to sign the treaty or have pursued nuclear weapons programs while not being members of the treaty.
Many view the pursuit of nuclear weapons by these states as a threat to nonproliferation and world peace. Eliminating nuclear weapons has long been an aim of the pacifist left. But now many mainstream politicians, academic analysts, and retired military leaders also advocate nuclear disarmament. Sam Nunn , William Perry , Henry Kissinger , and George Shultz have called upon governments to embrace the vision of a world free of nuclear weapons, and in three Wall Street Journal opeds proposed an ambitious program of urgent steps to that end.
We are in a different era. You have to understand the world has changed. The film is a visual and historical depiction of the ideas laid forth in the Wall Street Journal op-eds and reinforces their commitment to a world without nuclear weapons and the steps that can be taken to reach that goal. Global Zero is an international non-partisan group of world leaders dedicated to achieving nuclear disarmament.
The Global Zero campaign works toward building an international consensus and a sustained global movement of leaders and citizens for the elimination of nuclear weapons. Goals include the initiation of United States - Russia bilateral negotiations for reductions to 1, total warheads each and commitments from the other key nuclear weapons countries to participate in multilateral negotiations for phased reductions of nuclear arsenals.
Global Zero works to expand the diplomatic dialogue with key governments and continue to develop policy proposals on the critical issues related to the elimination of nuclear weapons. The Conference was entitled Achieving the Vision of a World Free of Nuclear Weapons and had the purpose of building consensus between nuclear weapon states and non-nuclear weapon states in relation to the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty.