Chess Generalship

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  1. Chess Generalship, Vol. 1 (Classic Reprint)
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Unlimited Seats U-EL. Web Usage W-EL. Print usage P-EL. Sell the rights SR-EL 1. Sell the rights SR-EL 3. Sell the rights SR-EL. We accept all major credit cards from Finland. Designers also selected these stock photos. Magnifying glass Chess player Chess white queen on the attack Chess Two Horse in field galloping together Chess pieces on wood board Chess game in black and white Two horses Horses love.

More similar stock images. Black and white chess horses in front of each other as challenge and competition concept. Black and white chess horses stand opposite each other on a white background, tight shadow Black and white chess horses Chess pieces, horses black and white Chess. Black and White Knights on black background. None but men endowed by Nature with the military. All the writings of mere. Such will guide him along a road, in which he who has no conductor may easily lose himself. They will correct his blunders considerately, recollecting that should these be ridiculed or treated with severity, talent might be stifled.

It is a difficult matter to form the average student, and to impart to him that degree of intelligent audacity and confident prudence which is requisite for the proper practice of the Art of Strategetics. To secure proficiency, the student from the beginning must cheerfully submit himself to a mental discipline, which properly may be termed severe; in order to make his faculties obedient to his will. The student daily should exercise his mind in the routine of deployments, developments, evolutions,.

These exercises should be imprinted on. But this. At the same time the student should thoroughly instruct himself in military history, topography, logic, With mathematics, and the science of fortification. The past history of Chess-play, is the true school for who aspire to precedence in the Royal Game. It is. Particularly is it necessary to learn that he who can best deduce conIt is essential to grasp that.

Especially, should the student be wary in regard to what is termed chess analysis, as applied to the so-called "openings" and to the mid-game. Most chess analysts. Yet it is of such folly that the mediocre mind is most enamoured. Content with seeing much, it is oblivious to what it cannot see and the analytical system consists ;. This is that slender reed upon which the so-called "chess-analyst" hangs his claims, oblivious to the basic truth that in analysis, unless all is known, nothing is. Hence, their opinions and judgments, being founded in ignorance of all the facts, are to that extent defective; and their conclusions necessarily wrong.

Through action taken upon incomplete knowledge, men are beguiled into error; and it is to such unreason that most human catastrophies are to be attributed. Most of those who attempt to write on Strategetics, and whether applied to Chess-play or to Warfare, very quickly are compelled to seek refuge in vague phrases; in order to conceal their uncertain grasp on the subject discussed. Words intended to convey instruction, should not be used except in their proper meaning. Each word should be defined for the student and its use regulated.

The true use of words being established, there. As the student progresses toward proficiency, he, sooner or later, will come to realize, that of all disgusting things, to a mind which revolts at nonsense, reasoning ill is the worst. It is distressing, to be afflicted with the absurdities of men, who, victims of the fancy, confound enthusiasm The with capability and mistake mania for talent.

Every player at Chess has defects; many have very to imitate. In searching for these one should not treat himself tenderly, and when examining his faults, he should. Particularly should the student cultivate confidence in and rigidly adhere to the standard of skill, as interpreted by that immutable System of Chess-play, of which Morphy is the unapproachable and all-sufficient ex-. Observing the lack of method displayed by the incompetent Chess-commander, the student of this system will remark with astonishment, the want of plan and. How dense is such a leader in the selection of a project,.

One who is opposed by such blockheads, necessarily must gain advantages continually; for conduct so opposite to all the laws of the Art, is, in itself, sufficient to incur ruin. It is for such negligence on his own part. But such errors, especially on the part of great players, are exemplary lessons for the student, who from them may learn to be more prudent, circumspect, and wise. Those who make a mere pastime of Chess, who have no desire for the true benefit of the game, do not deserve information.

They have few coherent ideas and are usually influenced by mere chatter and by writers whose sole excuse is enthusiasm. These players at the game cannot benefit by example. Each generation of such "wood-shifters," has blindly followed. It is the darling habit of such folk to treat the great things in Chess with levity and to dignify those insignificant matters which appertain to the game when errors.

Chess so indescribably beautiful. There is another class of Chess-players who from mere levity of mind are incapable of steadily pursuing any fixed plan; but who overturn, move by move, even such advantages as their good fortune may have procured. There are others, who, although possessed of great vimind and eager for information, yet lack that. Lastly, there are not a few whose way of thinking and the validity of whose calculations, depend upon their.

It is in vain that such people endeavor to Hence it things beyond their understanding. Afterward, at each move, the most. Understanding of high art is dispensed only to the few; the great mass neither can comprehend nor enjoy it.

Chess Generalship, Vol. 1 (Classic Reprint)

In spite of the good natured Helvetius, all are not wise. Should one thinkin a thousand be discovered it will be much and. Consequently, they consign book, author, and reader conjointly to Satan. So much. The early success of many young students does not permit them to observe that they often have departed from the rules of the Art. As they have escaped punishment for their errors, they remain unacquainted with the dangers to which they were exposed.

Constant good fortune finally. Thus, the youthful tyro, inconsiderate, inconsistent, and turbulent, and oblivious to the innumerable dangers by which he is surrounded, plays his pieces hither and thither, as fancy and inclination dictate, culling bouquets of the most gorgeous flowers of the imagination; thoughtless of.

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To reason exactly, the student first must rid his mind of all preconceived notions; he must regard the matter under consideration as a blank sheet of paper, upon which nothing. A long chapter can be written on the different ways in which men lose themselves in their conjectures. Innumerable examples of this are not wanting, and all because they have suffered themselves to be hurried away and thus to be.

A single false deduction, or a movement of the enemy unintelligible to a. For however extensive the human mind may be, it is sufficiently so to penetrate those minute combinations necessary to be developed in order to foresee and regulate events, the sequence, utility and even. Incidents which are past, can be explained clearly,. To him, as much as to the future the hidden; he knows not what shall tyro, next move. How then may he even on the happen, foresee those situations which secondary causes later of the greatest Strategist.

Deprived of such precaution, the edifice I erect, wanting a base, would fall like a house of cards. By means of these latter,. In this connection, writes Polybius, the friend and biographer of Hannibal: "Having made ourselves masters of the subject of Warfare, we shall no longer ascribe success to Fortune and blindly applaud mere conquerors, as the ignorant do ;. Man can sway the future, only by foreseeing through a dear understanding of the present, to what far off end matters are tending. Consequently, talent of the highest order is required which never can be based exact and which upon knowledge, always must confor the deducing of conclusions.

The responsibilities inherent to Grand Reconnaissance never are to be delegated to, nor thrust upon subordinates. Scouts, spies, and informers of every kind, have their manifold and proper uses, but such uses never rise above furnishing necessary information in regard to topographical, tactical, and logistic details.

The Commander-in-chief alone is presumed to possess knowledge and skill requisite to discern what strate-. Lack of military talent and of Strategetic knowledge, never is more strikingly shown than by negligence or fact. Incompetents, ignorant of this truth, and oblivious to importance, devolve such vital responsibility upon subordinates; and later, these legalized murderers palliate the slaughter of their troops and the national its. Knowledge of the number, organization, position and movements of the enemy's troops is the basic element for correct calculation in campaign and battle.

Such things to be accurately estimated must be All speculation and all conjecture in closely inspected. In the making of Grand Reconnaissance, one always must be wary of placing too much confidence in appearances and in first impressions. Especially must care be taken not to magnify the weaknesses of the hostile. The talents of the opposing commander; nor The advantages possessed by the opposing army:.

These things are the only reliable guides for determining the true course of procedure. It must be left to the. As soon as the enemy begins a movement, his intenbecome clear. It is then possible to make precise.

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But be not hasty to build conclusions upon uncertain information and do not take any resolutions until certain what. However interesting an Undertaking may appear, one should not be seduced by it while ill-informed of the obstacles to be met and the possibility of not having sufficient force in the theatre of action. Reason, instead of extravagancies of the fancy, always must be the guide. Men, most courageous, often undertake fearful difficulties, but impracticable things they leave to lunatics.

Especially in crises, one must proceed most cautiously In. In every important juncture, each step must be profoundly considered; as little as possible should be left to chance. At all times the General should see things only as they are and attempt what is dictated by Particularly,. His troops are extremely well disciplined, he exercises them incessantly. Always himself at their head, they and with arms baggage marches of three hundred perform stadia with alarming expedition and making no difference to. Should the Boers assume offensive operations, the Engarmies with their long and thinly guarded lines of communication, would be placed in great jeopardy.

By Chas. Goldman, war correspondent with Gen. French, who, with a mere handful of troops succeeded not only in. There, he will await the arrival of twenty-two transports now en route from. French reached De Arr. Meanwhile a detachment under Major still. French by his skillful tactics held a powerful force of Boers at bay, checked their descent into the southern part of the colony, defeated their attempt to display the Vierkleur across the cape peninsular, and materially influenced, if not absolutely determined, the entire future of the.

Bloemfontein to Pretoria, initiating the operation by the concentration of large forces on the forming there an advanced base. Buller attempt to pierce the line of Boer vedettes posted upon the Spion Kop and concealing as near as can be determined from the present meagre facts, either the Second, or the Fourth Ambuscade.

Warren and his command and watching him intently. Friday, Jan. Warren began a long, circuitous march to the westward for the purpose of. Warren, having crossed the Tugela River with the bulk of his troops, ordered a frontal attack. Our men behaved splendidly under a. Boer main position. Vide "Secret Instructions" of Frederic the Great. Warren has been engaged all day chiefly on his left, which he has swung forward a couple of miles. Warren holds the position he gained two days The Boer position is on higher ground than ours ago. An attempt will be made tonight to seize Spion Kop.

Warren's garrison, I am sorry to say, I find this morning had in the night abandoned Spion Kop. Accordingly I decided to withdraw the troops to the south side of the Tugela River. By Capt. Slocum, U. Attache with British Army. The main supply park of the army was attacked by the enemy near Watervale Drift. One hundred and fifty of these wagons and three thousand oxen were captured by the Boers. His transport was nearly all captured and his army tion. The crisis still further developed when a coubrought the report that the Boers were in position at Watervale Drift and commanding the ford with artillery.

As the commander on the ground he is entitled to all the glory and must assume all the blame. One of the ablest of the Boer generals, he is the only one in. Commander Ferrera permitted French to get around. Cronje off from his natural line of retreat across the Vaal and compelled him to flee toward Bloemfontein. Instead of first executing Ferrera and then blundered.

This was fatal. On the contrary, surrounded by the mightiest army the British empire ever put in the field and enveloped in. Antiochus, King of Syria, reviewing his immense but untrained and undisciplined army at Ephesus, asked of Hannibal, "if they were not enough for the Romans. Advantage in Organization consists in having one or more Corps d'armee which in equipment or in composition are so superior to the hostile corps to which they may become opposed, as entails to them exceptional facilities for the execution of those tactical area.

Advantage in Organization determines the choice of a prospective battlefield; and the latter always should be composed of those tactical areas which permit of the fullest exercise of the powers peculiar to kindred corps d'armee. Every corps d'armee thus especially equipped should be constantly and energetically employed in the prospective battle; and usually it will eventuate as the Prime Tactical Factor in the decisive Major Tactical evolution.

Notions most mistaken prevail in regard to the Pawns of the Chessboard. To suppose that the Chessmen per se may be utilized to typify the different arms of the military service is a. Science delude themselves that the Pawns, on account of their slow and limited movements properly are to be. As a fundamental of military organization applied to Chessplay, each Chesspiece typifies in itself a complete Corps d'armee.

Each of these Chessic corps d'armee is equal to every other in strength, but all differ, more or less, in construction and in facilities, essential to the. Thus it is that while every Chesspiece represents a perfectly appointed and equally powerful body of troops, these corps d'armee in Chessplay as in scientific warfare are not duplicates, except to others of their own class.

Each of these corps d'armee is made up of Infantry, Cavalry and Artillery in correct proportion to the service they are to perform and such proportions are determined not by simple arithmetic, but by those deployments, developments, evolutions, and manoeuvres, which such corps d'armee is constructed promptly and efficiently to execute. The Chessmen, therefore, do not as individuals represent either infantry, cavalry or artillery. But in the same manner as the movements of troops over the surface of the earth, exemplify the attributes of the three kindred grand columns in the greater logistics of a campaign; so do those pecularities which appertain to the moves of the different Chesspieces exemplify the action of the three chief arms of the military service; either singly or in combination against given points in given times, in the evolutions of the battlefield, viz :.

Preventing an adverse piece Defensive Fire Effect. Defensive Fire Effect. Preventing an adverse piece from occupying an unoccupied point not an adjacent point. Pawns, by reason of their limited movemove backward and the peculiarity of their offensive and defensive powers, are best adapted of the Chesspieces to perform those functions which in the Military Art appertain to Corps of Position. Each Corps of Position has its particular and designated Point of Mobilization and of Development, which differ with the various Strategic Fronts.

Corps of Position take their individual appelation from their posts in a given formation, viz :. Minor Corps Enceinte. Major Corps Enceinte. Corps Echeloned. Corps En Appui. Base Corps Refused. Pivotal Corps Refused. Minor Vertex Corps Refused. Minor Corps Aligned Refused. Major Vertex Corps Refused. Major Corps Aligned Refused.

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Major Corps Refused Enpotence. Corps en Major Crochet. Corps en Minor Crochet. Corps en Crochet Aligned. Corps of Evolution acting offensively, take their individual appelations from the points which constitute their objective in the true Strategetic Horizon, viz: 1. Corps of Evolution acting defensively, take their individual appelations from the particular duties they are required to perform, viz: 1. Any corps d'armee, whether of Position or of Evolution. Regarded as a Chessic Corps d'armee, the King marches as infantry, cavalry and artillery but it attacks as infantry exclusively and never as cavalry or artillery.

Although every situation upon the Chessboard contemplates the presence of both Kings, either, or neither, or both, may, or may not be present in any given Strate;. At his maximum of efficiency, the the centre of a circle of one point radius. At his medium of efficiency the King occupies the centre of a semi-circle of one point radius. His offensive power is valid against all five points contained in his semi-circumference, and his defensive II.

Both his offensive and his defensive powers are valid against all three points contained in his segment. Regarded as a Chessic Corps d'armee the Queen marches and attacks as infantry, cavalry and artillery. Either, neither, or both Queens may be present in any given Strategetic Horizon; and whenever present the effect of her co-operation. Her offensive power is equally valid of 27 points. Regarded as a Chessic Corps d'armee the Rook marches and attacks as infantry, cavalry and artillery.

From one to four Rooks may be present in any given Strategetic Horizon; and whenever present the effect of its. The Offensive Power of the Rook is equally valid against all these points, but his defensive. Regarded as a Chessic Corps d'armee, the Bishop marches and attacks as infantry, cavalry and artillery.

From one to four Bishops may be present in any Strategetic Horizon; and whenever present the effect of its. At its maximum of efficiency, the Bishop occupies the common vertex of four unequal triangles, having a maximum of 13 and a minimum of 9 points. His power is valid against all of these points but his defensive power is valid only for the support of two. Regarded as a Chessic Corps d'armee the Knight marches and attacks as cavalry and artillery. From one to four Knights maybe present in any given Strategetic Horizon; and whenever present the effect of its.

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Regarded as a Chessic Corps d'armee, the Pawn at its normal post marches as infantry and cavalry. Should an adverse corps, however, take post within the kindred side of the Chessboard; that Pawn upon whose altitude the adverse Piece appears, at once loses its equestrian attributes and marches and attacks exclusively as infantry.

At its maximum of efficiency the Pawn occupies the vertex of a triangle of two points. Its offensive power is equally valid against both of these points; but its defensive. The student clearly should understand that this table does not indicate prowess, but relates exclusively to normal. The relative advantage in Organization possessed by one army over an opposing army always can be determined by the following, viz :.

Cancel all like symbols and resolve the unlike symbols remaining, into their respective Potential com-. Subtract the lesser Potential total from the greater difference will be the relative advantage in. Epaminondas called them Comrades and by honorable rewards and distinctions induced them to bear without murmur the hardest fatigues and to confront with intrepidity the greatest.

At Leuctra B. Band led by Epaminondas. The Macedonian Phalanx was devised by Philip, of Macedon. It was made up of heavy infantry. The principal weapon was a pike twenty-four feet long. The Phalanx had a front of two hundred and fifty-six and a depth of sixteen ranks. It was made up of four simple Phalanxes and contained 16, men.

With this formation of his infantry, Alexander the. Issus B. Lake Trasymenus B. At Zama B. Hannibars effacement as a military factor was directly due to his lack of that organization which had been the instrument of his previous successes; a circumstance thus commented on by the victorious. Roman commander, Scipio Africanus; "Hitherto I have been opposed by an army without a general; now they send against me a General without an.

The Tenth Legion of Caesar was the quintessence of that perfection in elementary tactics devised by the Romans to accord with the use of artillery. The fundamentals of minor tactics as elucidated by Epaminondas and exploited by Alexander the Great and Hannibal are unchanged in the Legion, but by subdivision of the simple Phalanx into ten Cohorts, a necesmaximum gain in mobility was effected. The Legion was drawn up in three lines; the first of which was termed Principes, the second Hastati, and the third.

The infantry were protected by helmet, cuirass, Triarii. With this formation Caesar over-run Spain, Gaul,. Germany, Britain, Africa, Greece, and Italy. The Scots alone withstood him and the ruins of a triple line of Roman entrenchments extending from the North to. At Pharseleus, Pompey made the inexplicable blunder of placing his best troops in his right wing, which was covered by the river Enipeus and inferior troops on his wing which was in the air.

By its first charge, the Tenth Legion destroyed the latter, out-flanked the entire Pompeian army, drove it backward into the river and single handed won for Caesar undisputed dominion of the. Scots Volunteers of Gustavus Adolphus consisted two brigades aggregating about 12, foot, made up Scottish gentlemen who for various reasons were.

At Leipsic, Sept. Thirty Scots Volunteers, looking on ish infantry. Beckoning to their aid about a hundred of their comrades, they scaled the wall, captured the garrison and opened the gates to the king. Gustavus entered on foot, hat in hand. The Van-Guard of Frederic the Great is the perfect adaptation of the minor tactics of Epaminondas to gunpowder.

This choice body was made up of the best troops in the. The Van-Guard, a miniature army in itself, always marched between the main body and the enemy; it. Continentals of the Revolutionary army under Washington were made up of troops enlisted for the. The Consular Guard was the reproduction of the Van Guard of Frederic the Great, but its sphere of action was strangely restricted by Bonaparte, who, instead of placing his best troops in the front of his army, as is the practice of all other of the Great Captains subordinated ;.

This Corps d' elite was but once notably in action; at Marengo June 14, it undoubtedly saved the day for France, by maintaining the battle until the arrival of Gen. Desaix and his division. Under the Emthe Guard became an independent army, consisting pire of the Consular. The functions of this fine body, like that of its prototype, was limited to the duties of a reserve and to attendance upon the person of the Emperor; and perhaps next to announcement of victory, Napoleon's favorite bulletin always read,.

In the retreat from Russia the Guard then number-. What was left at Ligny June 16, , Napoleon's last victory and at Waterloo June 18, , one of its two surviving divisions covered the flight of the French ing 64, of. The right flank of the French having been turned by the battle of Woerth Aug. In the first half-hour. Guard lost 8, men. Tilly has a great army of old lads with iron faces that dare. I observed of them that their clothes were always dirty, their armor rusty from winter storms and bruised by musket-balls, their weapons sharp and bright. They were used to camp in the open fields and to sleep in the The horses like the men were strong and frosts and rain.


Both men and animals so well understood the trade of arms that a general command was sufficient; every man was fit to command the whole, and all evolutions were performed in order and with readiness, at a note of the trumpet or a motion of their banners. He had with him 44, old soldiers and a better army I believe never was so soundly beaten. Tilly's men might be killed or knocked down, but no man turned his back, nor would give an inch of ground, save as they were marched, wheeled, or retreated by. About six was cleared of the enemy except at one place on the King's front, where some of them rallied; and though they knew that all was lost, they would take no quarter, but fought it out to the last man, being found dead the next day in rank and file as they were drawn their officers.

Perfection in Organization is attained when troops instantly and intelligently act according to order and. This is effected by so posting the kindred corps that in the resulting Strategetic Horizons, impassable natural barriers are presented to the march of hostile corps toward their respective objectives. On the surface of the earth such natural barriers are formed by mountains, rivers, lakes, swamps, forests, deserts, the ocean, and the boundaries of neutral States.

On the Chess-board these topographical conditions are typified by peculiarities and limitations in the movements of the Chess-pieces, viz. The sides of the Chess-board which terminate all movements of the chess pieces. That limitation of the movements of the Chesswhich makes it impossible for them to move other pieces.

The inability of the Pawn to move either on or obliques horizontals, and the limitation of its first move to two squares and of its subsequent moves to one square. These limitations and impediments to the movements of the Chess-pieces, are equivalent in Chess-play to obstacles interposed by Nature to the march of troops over the surface of the earth. Prefect Generalship, in its calculations, so combines these insurmountable barriers with the relative positions of the contending armies, that the kindred army becomes at every vital point the superior force.

This effect is produced by merely causing rivers and mountains to take the place of kindred Corps d'armee. It is only by the study of Chessic topography that the tremendous problems solved by the chess player become. The enormous difficulties of Chess-play, like those of warfare, arise from the necessity of combining in a single composite topographical horizon, all those differing, which appertain, not merely to the kindred, but also to the hostile corps; and to do this in such a manner, as to minimize the hostile powers for sensible horizons. To divide up the enemy's force, by making natural barriers take the place of troops, is the basis of those processes.

Of all the deductions of Chess-play and of warfare, such combinations of Strategy and Topography are the. The highest talent is intangible. This vista is void of insurmountable natural obstacles, other than the sides and extremities. The latter collectively may be regarded, for strategical purposes, either as the Ocean, or the boundaries of neutral States. King arises from its always taking on and the Consequently maintaining physical form of a plain.

King and Pawn. Thus, the hostile Queen, without being attacked in return, may enfilade the King along all verticals, horizontals and diagonals; the Rooks, along all verticals and horizontals; the Bishops, along all diagonals of like color; and the Knights along all obliques. These valleys, which number never less than three, nor more than eight, in the same group, are of varying length and always converge upon and unite with each other at the point occupied by the Queen.

These valleys contained in the Queen's topographical horizon may be classified, viz. Such areas always are exclusive of that point upon which the Queen is posted. Hence, the march of this most mobile of the Chessis open either in three, five, or eight direcalways is possible for her, unless impeded by the interference of kindred or hostile corps, to reach any desired point on the Chess-board in two moves.

The weakness peculiar to the Topographical Horizon which appertains to the Queen, originates in the fact that it never commands the origins of Conseobliques. Placed at either Rl or R8 the Rook occupies the central point of a great valley, 15 points in length, which winds around the slope of an immense and inaccessible mountain range.

This latter, in extent, includes the remainder of the Topographical Zone. With the Rook placed at R2 or R7, this great mountain wall becomes pierced by a long valley running at right angles to the first, but the area open to the movement. Rook is not increased. But although of the. Unless impeded by the presence of kindred or adverse corps on.

Hence it is open to diagonals or obliques. Thus, the Topographical Horizon of the Bishop takes the form of a broken country, dotted with high hills,. Unless interfered with by kindred or hostile corps, or the limitations of the Chess-board, the Knight always. It may reach any desired point in a minimum of one and a maximum of six moves, and may occupy the sixty-four squares of the Chess-board in the same number of marches. The weakness of the topographical horizon of the Knight lies in the fact that it never commands adjacent points, nor any of those distant, other than the termini of its own obliques.

Hence it is open to unopposed attack along verticals and horizontals from the adverse King, Queen and Rooks, and along diagonals from the adverse King, Queen, Bishop and Pawns. The march of the Pawn always is along a valley situ,r ated between impracticable natural barriers, and the possible movements of the Pawn always decrease as the distance traveled increases. The two sides of the zone may be held to typify either the Ocean or the boundaries of neutral States. The two extremities of the Chess-board while holding the previously announced relation to Chess-pieces contained in.

In the latter case, the two extremities of the chessboard are to be regarded as two great mountain ranges,. In the arena thus formed by these four great natural barriers, two hostile armies composed of the thirty-two Chess-pieces, are contending for the mastery. Meanwhile, beyond these great mountain ranges, are advancing to the aid of the combatants, two other armies, represented by the power of promotion possessed by the Pawns. Each of these two hypothetical armies is assailing the outer slope of that range of mountains which lies in the rear of the hostile force.

Its effort is to pass one of the eight defiles and by occupying a Point of Junction in the kindred Logistic Horizon, to gain entrance into the Topographical Zone. Then in the array of a Queen, or some other kindred piece, it purposes to attack decisively,. Primarily this labor falls upon the kindred Pawns. Conversely, a second duty devolves upon each Pawn; and as an integer of the Column of Support, it continually must threaten and whenever opportunity is.

Every variety of topography has peculiar requirements and its defence; and situations even though but little different from each other, nevertheless must be for its attack. In order to acquire the habit of selecting at a glance the correct posts for an army and of making proper dispositions of the kindred corps with rapidity.

That is to say Kindred corps never should be exposed to unopposed adverse radii of offence, when the effect of such exposure is the loss of kindred material, or of :. Pains always must be taken to select advantageous ground. Indifferent posts must never be occupied from sheer indolence or from over-confidence in the strength of the kindred, or the weakness of the adverse army. Particularly must one beware of permitting the enemy to retain advantages in topography; always and at once. The relative advantage in Topography possessed by one army over an opposing army, always can be determined by the.

To utilize the relative advantage in Topography, construct a position in which the kindred Corps of Position necessary to be defended shall occupy a point upon the sub-geometric symbol of a kindred Corps of Evolution;. Strategetic Horizon of which the kindred Corps of Evolution is the Corps of the Centre and of which either the. To neutralize the relative disadvantage in Topography, eliminate that adverse Corps d'armee which is able to act simultaneously by its geometric symbol against the principal Kindred Corps of Position upon a given.

Perfection in Defensive Topography is attained whenever the ground occupied nullifies hostile advantages in. To cross the Granicus, Alexander the Great selected a fordable spot where the river made a long, narrow bend, and attacked the salient and both sides simultaneously.

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The Persians thus outflanked were easily and quickly routed; whereupon the Grecian army in line of Phalanxes, both flanks covered by the river and its retreat assured by the fords in rear, advanced to battle in harmony with all requirements of Strategetic Art. Alexander the Great so manoeuvred that the of more than a million men was confined in a long valley not over three miles in width, having the sea on the left hand and the Amanus Mountains on the right, thus the Grecians had a battlefield fitted to the size of their army, and fought in Phalanxes in line, both wings covered by impassable natural barriers and retreat Issus,.

Upon this, Hannibal detached his youngest brother Margo to cut off the retreat of the Romans from the ford by which they had crossed the Trebia; advanced his. By one of the most notable marches in surprise recorded in military annals, Hannibal crossed the seemingly impassible marshes of the river Po, and turned the left flank of the Roman army, commanded by the Then the great Carthagenian Consul C.

In headlong pursuit the Consul entered a long narrow valley, having Lake Trasymenus on the one hand and the mountains on the other. Suddenly while entombed in. Selecting a long bend in the Aufidus, Hannibal forded the river and took position by Phalanxes in line, his flanks covered by unfordable parts of the stream and his retreat assured by the fords by which he had crossed, while as at Issus, the ground on his front though fitting own army, was so confined as to prevent the Romans.

Following leisurely but closely the marauding he Helvetii, permitted three-fourths of their army to the cross to westerly side of the river; then he fell upon with his whole army. An eye-witness thus describes the famous passage of the Lech by Gustavus Adolphus: " Resolved to view the situation of the enemy, his majesty went out the 2nd of April with a strong body of horse, which I had the honor to command. We marched as near as we could to the bank of the river, not to be too much exposed to the enemy's cannon; and having gained a height where the whole course of the river might be seen, we drew up and the king alighted and examined every reach and turning of the river with his glass.

Toward the north, he found the river fetching a long reach and doubling short upon itself. The bridge was loose plank placed upon large tressels as bricklayers raise a scaffold to build a wall. The tressels were made some higher and some lower to answer grew deeper or shallower; and all was any attempt was made to cross.

At night, April 4th the king posted about 2, men near the point and ordered them to throw up trenches on either side and quite around it; within which at each end the king placed a battery of six pieces and six cannon at the point, two guns in front and two at each side. By daylight, all the batteries were finished, the trenches filled with musketeers and all the bridge equipment at hand in readiness for use. To conceal this work the king had fired all night at other places along the river.

At daylight, the Imperialists discovered the king's The muskedesign, when it was too late to prevent it. Now, in the second place, the King sent over four hundred men who cast up a large ravelin on the other bank just where he planned to land; and while this was doing the King laid over his bridge. About one o'clock about the time when the King had his bridge finished and in heading a charge of foot against our ravelin was brave old Tilly slain by a musket bullet in the thigh.

This work being finished the same night, the King sent over his Guards and six hundred Scots to man the new line. Early in the morning a party of Scots under Capt. Forbes of Lord Rae's regiment was sent abroad to learn something of the enemy and Sir John Hepburn with the Scots Brigade was ordered to pass the bridge, draw up outside the ravelin, and to advance in search of the enemy as soon as the horse were come over. Sir John sent messenger ing after messenger entreating for permission to advance, full battle array,. So the army continued on this side of the Lech all day and the next night.

In the morning the King ordered horse, horse and dragoons to enter the wood by three ways, but sustaining each other; the Scots Brigade to follow to the edge of the wood in support of all, and a brigade of. Swedish infantry to cover Sir John's troops. So warily did this famous warrior proceed. The next day the cavalry came up with us led by Gustavus Horn; and the King and the whole army. With but 55, troops in hand and surrounded by the Austrian and Russian armies aggregating a a million men; Frederic the Great availing of a of quarter a few hills, a rivulet and a fortified town, conswamp, structed a battlefield upon which his opponents dared not united.

Washington compelled the British to evacuate Boston, merely by occupying with artillery Dorchester Heights, the tactical key of the theatre of action and thus preventing either ingress or egress from the harbor. At Trenton the Hessian column was unable to escape from Washington's accurate evolutions, on account of being imprisoned in an angle formed by the unfordable Delaware river.

At Yorktown, the British army under Lord Cornwallis was captured entire, being cut off from all retreat by the ocean on the right flank and the James river in rear. Bonaparte made his reputation at Toulon merely by following the method employed by Washington in the seige of Boston. Bonaparte gained his first success in Italy because the Piedmontese and Austrian armies, although thrice his numbers, were separated by the Appenine mountains: allied.

Bonaparte's success at Castiglione was due to the separation of the Austrian army into two great isolated columns by the Lake of Garda. At Arcola, Bonaparte occupied a great swamp upon the hostile strategic center and the Austrian army was destroyed by its efforts to dislodge him. All were ruined in the effort to dislodge the French from this Tactical Center. At Austerlitz the left wing of the Austro-Russian army was caught between the French army and a chain of lakes and rivulets and totally destroyed.

At Friedland the Russian army was caught between the French in front and the Vistula river in rear and totally destroyed. At Krasnoe, the Russians under Kutosof, occupied the strategic center' and were covered by the Dnieper.

To force the passage of the river cost Napoleon 30, men. At the Beresina, the Russians under Benningsen, occupied the Strategic Center and were covered by the unfordable river. To force the passage cost Napoleon 20, men. At Leipsic, Napoleon was caught between the allied army and the Elbe. The retreat across the river cost the French 50, men.

At Waterloo, the high plateau sloping gradually to a hamlets on front and flank and the forest. Success in an operation depends upon the secrecy and which the movements are made. Caesar is a marvel of vigilance and rapidity, he finishes a war in a march. Whatever may be such series of movements, obviously, must have an object, i. Equally so, all movements made on such line of movement must each have an objective, i. These objectives, like cogs in a gear, intimately are connected with other objectives or termini, so that the. That the object of the given line of movement is become unattainable, or, Because it has become no longer worth attaining, 2.

Before the true object and the true objective of any it first is necessary to deduce the common object of all movement. These calculations are so complex that human perception accurately can forecast ultimate and even immediate results only in comparatively few and simple situations. Such calculable outcomes are limited to the earlier stages of the opening, to. This faculty of Mobility is that inestimable quality without which nothing and by means of which everything, can be done.

From this truth it is easy to deduce the common object of all movement, which obviously is All. Such normal superiority of the White army over the Black army is found in the fact that: 1 The former has the privilege of making the initial. While no mathematical demonstration of the outcome game at Chess is possible, nevertheless there are. This decided and probably decisive advantage posby White can be minimized only by correcting a mathematical blemish in the gane of Chess as at present constructed; which blemish, there is reason to believe, did not originally exist.

This imperfection seemingly is the result of unscienmodifications of the Italian method of Castling; which latter, from the standpoint of mathematics and of Strategetics, embodies the true spirit of that delicate and. The abortions played during successive ages and in various parts of the Earth, merely are crude and unscientific deviations from the perfect original. Thus, strategetically, the correct post of deployment Chess-King is at the extremity of a straight line drawn from the center of that Grand Strategic Front which appertains to the existing formation.

Hence, in the grand front by the right, the King in Castling R, properly goes in one move to KKtl, his proper post. Conversely, in Castling Q R, he also should go in one move to QKtl, his proper post corresponding to the grand front by the left. Again, whenever the formation logically points to the grand front by the right refused, the King should go in one move from Kl to KR1.

When the formations indicate the grand front by the left refused, the King should go in one move from Kl to QR1. In each and every case the co-operating Rook should be posted at the corresponding Bishop's square, in order to support the alignment by P-B4, of the front adopted.

All that can be done is to call attention to this baleful. Of course, it is useless combat it. In the words of the Count de Saxe. To depart from it a crime, and the most inexcusable of all crimes is to introduce innovations. For most people, it is sufficient that a thing is so, to forever allow it to remain so. Also bearing in mind the irony of Cicero, who regarded himself fortunate in that he had not fallen victim to services rendered his countrymen, it suffices to say: The true Chessic dictum in regard to the double.

To minimize the handicap on the second player, due to White's advantage of first move; 2. To permit open play on the Queen's side of the 3. In all our modern-day mis-interpretations of the ethics Chess and our characteristic Twentieth Century. In consequence, they say, the argumentative attempts of the Anglo-Saxon are puerile; the natural result of a mental limitation which differs from that of monkeys and parrots, merely in ability to count beyond two.

Surely it would seem that a very young child readily. German, universally countenance the paradox that: A piece which is pinned on its own King, can give check i. In order to exert such power, it is an all-essential 3. Therefore, whatever may be the normal area of movement belonging to a piece, whenever from any cause. This incongruity of permitting an immovable piece to give check constitutes the second mathematical blemish in the game of Chess, as at present constructed.

This fallacy, the correction of which any schoolboy may mathematically demonstrate, is defended, even by many who would know better, if they merely would take time for reflection; by the inane assumption, that:. A piece which admittedly is disqualified and rendered dormant by all the fundamentals of the science of Chess, and which therefore cannot legally move and consequently cannot legally capture anything; by some hocus-pocus may be made to move and to capture that most valuable of all prizes, the adverse King; and this at a time and under circumstances when, as is universally allowed, it cannot legally move against, nor legally capture any other adverse piece.

The pinned piece, belonging to that force which has the privilege of moving, can abandon its post, and capture the adverse King; this stroke ends the game and the. Its subtlety lies in confounding together things which have no connection, viz:. Admittedly the given body of Chess-pieces has the move, but it is of the utmost importance to. No less interesting than instructive and conclusive, reference of this question to those intellectual principles which give birth to the game of Chess, per se, viz. The play thus has for its object: The reduction to zero of the adverse X, by the operation of the kindred.

This result is checkmate in its generalized form.

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  7. In effect, it is the destruction of the power of the adverse pieces to move, by means of check made permanent. This series cannot be interrupted without obvious violation of the ethics of the game; because, so long as any part of remains, the principle from which the. Thus, a game of Chess is a procedure from total ability i. This is in perfect keeping with the law of continuity, which acts and dominates from beginning to end of the series, and so long as any part of X remains. Hence to permit either White or Black to move any piece, leaving his King in check, is an anomaly.

    Denial to the. Of those puerile hypotheses common to the. This supposition is due to ignorance of the fact that the multifarious duties of applied Strategetics, require for their execution like variety of instruments, which diversity of means is strikingly illustrated by the differing. This restriction in the move of the Pawn is in exact harmony with the inability of the Queen to move on obliques, of the Rook to move on obliques or on diagonals, of the Bishop to move on obliques, verticals and horizontals, of the Knight to move on diagonals, verticals, and horizontals, and of the King to move like any other piece.

    Possessed of the invaluable privilege of making the move in the game, knowing that no move should. PRINCIPLE To make the first of a series of movements, each of which shall increase the mobility -of the kindred pieces and correspondingly decrease the mobility of the adverse pieces. The communications of his army with its base. The communications of his corps d'armee with. The process consists in making only those movements by means of which the kindred corps d'armee, progressively occupying specified objectives, are advanced, viz.

    For the normal advantage that attaches to the first move in a game of Chess is vastly enhanced by a peculiarity in the mathematical make-up of the surface of the Chess-board, whereby, he who makes the first move may first. The sixty-four points, i. Hence, in Chessic mathematics, the sides of the Chessboard do not form a square, but the segment of a circumference.

    For example Let the eight points of the King's Rook's file form the perpendicular of a right angle triangle, of which the kindred first horizontal forms the base; then, the hypothenuse of the given angle, will be that diagonal which extends from QR1 to KR8. Now, merely by the pro:. Eight points in the base. Eight points in the perpendicular. Eight points in the hypothenuse. Consequently the three sides of this given right angled triangle are equal to each other, which is a geometric 1.

    Therefore, it is self-evident that there exists a mathematical incongruity in the surface of the Chess-board. That is, what to the eye seems a right angled triangle, is. Hence, the Chess-board, in its. Connect by a straight line the points KR8 and QR8.