Character of the Indo-European moods with special regard to Greek and Sanskrit

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  5. The Character of the Indo-European Moods (Gonda)

New etymologies continue to be made, new roots are recognized, and older etymologies undergo revision to incorporate new evidence or better analyses. The attention to detail in reconstruction in this newly revised Roots Appendix reflects these ongoing developments in the field: Indo-European studies are alive with excitement, growth, and change. The comparative method—what we have called the comparatist's "one fact and one hypothesis"—remains today the most powerful device for elucidating linguistic history. When it is carried to a successful conclusion, the comparative method leads not merely to the assumption of the previous existence of an antecedent common language but to a reconstruction of all the salient features of that language.

In the best circumstances, as with Indo-European, we can reconstruct the sounds, forms, words, even the structure of sentences—in short, both grammar and lexicon—of a language spoken before the human race had invented the art of writing. It is worth reflecting on this accomplishment. A reconstructed grammar and dictionary cannot claim any sort of completeness, to be sure, and the reconstruction may always be changed because of new data or better analysis.

But it remains true, as one distinguished scholar has put it, that a reconstructed protolanguage is "a glorious artifact, one which is far more precious than anything an archaeologist can ever hope to unearth. Before proceeding with a survey of the lexicon and culture of the Indo-Europeans, it may be helpful to give a concrete illustration of the method used to reconstruct the Proto-Indo-European vocabulary and a brief description of some of the main features of the Proto-Indo-European language.

The example will serve as an introduction to the comparative method and indicate as well the high degree of precision that the techniques of reconstruction permit. All of these forms, called cognates, provide evidence for the phonetic shape of the prehistoric Indo-European word for "daughter-in-law" that is their common ancestor. Sanskrit, Germanic, and Slavic agree in showing an Indo-European word that began with sn-. This principle is spoken of as the regularity of sound correspondences; it is basic to the sciences of etymology and comparative linguistics.

Sanskrit, Latin, Greek, and Armenian agree in showing the first vowel as - u -. We know from other examples that Slavic regularly corresponds to Sanskrit u and that in this position Germanic o of Old English snoru has been changed from an earlier u. The key is furnished first by the Sanskrit form, for we know there is a rule in Sanskrit that s always changes to a sh -like sound after the vowel u.

In Latin always, and in Germanic under certain conditions, an old - s - between vowels changed to - r-. In Greek and Armenian, on the other hand, an old - s - between vowels disappeared entirely, as we know from numerous instances. We have an apparent impasse; but the way out is given by the gender of the forms in Greek and Latin. They are feminine, even though most nouns in Latin - us and Greek - os are masculine.

Feminine nouns in Latin - us and Greek - os, since they are an abnormal type, cannot have been created afresh; they must have been inherited. One point remains to be ascertained: the accent. The Germanic form is equally precise, however, since the rule is that old - s - went to - r - Old English snoru only if the accented syllable came after the - s -.

It is noteworthy that no single language in the family preserves this word intact. In every language, in every tradition in the Indo-European family, the word has been somehow altered from its original shape. It is the comparative method that permits us to explain the different forms in this variety of languages by the reconstruction of a unitary common prototype, a common ancestor. A large part of the success of the comparative method with the Indo-European family is due to both the number and the precision of the agreements among the languages, not only in the regular sound correspondences of the roots but even more strikingly in the particulars of morphology, the forms of language in their grammatical function.

Consider the partial paradigms of the words for "dog" kwon- and "to kill" g w hen- :. The agreement of detail in sound correspondences see the chart on pages , in vowel alternations and their distribution, in the accent, in the grammatical forms endings , and in the syntactic functions is little short of astounding. Speech Sounds and Their Alternations. The system of sounds in Proto-Indo-European was rich in stop consonants. Some scholars would reinterpret the traditional voiced series as an unvoiced ejective, or glottalized, one.

While this new glottalic theory accounts for some typological difficulties, it introduces more problems than it solves. In this work, as in most current handbooks, Indo-European forms appear in their traditional shape. In the so-called "centum languages" comprising Greek, Italic, Germanic, and Celtic , the palatal velars become plain velars and the labiovelars at first remained, while in the "satem" languages Indo-Iranian, Balto-Slavic, and Armenian , the labiovelars became plain velars and the palatals became sibilants.

The terms "centum" and "satem" come respectively from the Latin and Avestan words for "hundred," illustrating the two developments. The boldface entry words in Appendix I do not distinguish plain from palatal velars, but more precise information is given for the interested reader in some entries following the English gloss of the root. If Proto-Indo-European was rich in stop consonants, it was correspondingly poor in continuants, or fricatives, such as English f, v, th, s, and z, having only s, which was voiced to z before voiced stop consonants. It had as well three laryngeals or h -like sounds, 1 , 2 , 3 , of disputed phonetic value equivalent notations are h 1 , h 2 , h 3 or H 1 , H 2 , H 3.

The sounds are preserved as such at least in part only in Hittite and the other Anatolian languages in cuneiform documents from the second millennium B. In all the other languages of the family, the laryngeals are lost, and their former presence in a word can only be deduced from indirect evidence such as the vowel "coloring" and the contractions discussed below.

Elucidation of the details of these laryngeals remains one of the most interesting problems confronting Indo-Europeanists today. Proto-Indo-European had two nasals, m and n, two liquids, r and l, and the glides w and y. A salient characteristic of Indo-European was that these sounds could function both as consonants and as vowels. Their consonantal value was as in English.

As vowels, symbolized , , , and , the liquids and nasals sounded much like the final syllables of English bottom, button, bottle, and butter. The vocalic counterparts of w and y were the vowels u and i. The laryngeals too could function both as consonants and as vowels: their consonantal value was that of h -like sounds, while as vowels they were varieties of schwa, much like the final syllable of English sofa; hence the choice of schwa to represent laryngeals in Appendix I.


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The other vowels of Indo-European were e, o, and a. These, as well as i and u , occurred both long and short, as did the diphthongs ei, oi, ai, eu, ou, au. All vowels are pronounced as in Latin or Italian. Since we can distinguish chronological layers in Proto-Indo-European, it can be said that a number of the long vowels of later Indo-European resulted from the contraction of early Indo-European short vowels with a following , a process consisting of the loss of with compensatory lengthening of the preceding vowel.

Already in Proto-Indo-European itself, two of the three laryngeals had the property of "coloring" an adjacent fundamental vowel e to a and o , respectively, before the contractions took place. The fundamental vowel in each of these roots, as in most Indo-European roots, was originally e. In scholarly usage it is now customary to write the noncoloring laryngeal as 1 or h 1 ; the a-coloring laryngeal as 2 or h 2 ; and the o-coloring laryngeal as 3 or h 3.

The three laryngeals are identified by number in the "oldest root form" information given at the beginning of certain entries in the Appendix, following the English gloss of the root. Elsewhere, in the boldface entrywords and cross-references, as well as in the italic citation of root forms and other reconstructions in the main text of an entry, the notation of these laryngeals is simplified to.

The vowel before the schwa is sufficient to distinguish the three in the cases of contraction to a long vowel, and in other positions in most languages other than Greek the three merge to one. Laryngeals also colored a following vowel e but not o before their loss. Initial laryngeals are also only noted as part of the "oldest root form" information in relavant entries. A characteristic feature of Indo-European was the system of vocalic alternations termed apophony or ablaut. This was a set of internal vowel changes expressing different morphological functions.

A clear reflex of this feature is preserved in the English strong verbs, where, for example, the vocalic alternations between write and wrote, give and gave, express the present and past tenses. Ablaut in Indo-European affected the vowels e and o. The fundamental form was e; this e could appear as o under certain conditions, and in other conditions both e and o could disappear entirely.

On this basis we speak of given forms in Indo-European as exhibiting, respectively, the e-grade or full grade , the o-grade, or the zero grade. The e and the o might furthermore occur as long or , termed the lengthened grade. When the zero grade involved a root with one of the sounds m, n, r, l, w, or y collectively termed resonants , the resonant would regularly appear in its vocalic function, forming a syllable. Note that the nonsyllabic resonant w appears as the vowel u when it becomes syllabic.

In the case of roots with long vowels arising from contraction with , the ablaut can be most clearly understood by referring to the older, uncolored and uncontracted forms. The fundamental vowel of the full grade disappears in the zero grade, and only the remains. Proto-Indo-European was a highly inflected language.

Grammatical relationships and the syntactic function of words in the sentence were indicated primarily by variations in the endings of the words. Nouns had different endings for different cases, such as the subject and the direct object of the verb, the possessive, and many other functions, and for the different numbers, namely the singular, plural, and a special dual number for objects occurring in pairs.

Practically none of this rich inflection is preserved in Modern English, but it has left its trace in many formations in Germanic and in other languages such as Latin and Greek. These are noted in Appendix I where they are relevant. With the exception of the numbers five to ten and a group of particles including certain conjunctions and quasi-adverbial forms, all Indo-European words underwent inflection. The structure of all inflected words, regardless of part of speech, was the same: root plus one or more suffixes plus ending. It was primarily the suffix that determined the part of speech of the word.

The root could undergo certain modifications. Extensions or enlargements did not affect the basic meaning and simply reflect formal variations between languages. Suffixes had more specific values. The root plus the suffix or suffixes constituted the stem. The stems represented the basic lexical stock of Indo-European, the separate words of its dictionary.

Yet a single root would commonly furnish a large number of derivative stems with different suffixes, both nominal and verbal, much as English love is both noun and verb as well as the base of such derivatives as lovely, lover, and beloved. For this reason it is customary to group such collections of derivatives, in a variety of Indo-European languages, under the root on which they are built. The root entries of Appendix I are arranged in this way, with derivatives that exhibit similar suffixes forming subgroups consisting of Indo-European stems or words.

Indo-European made extensive use of suffixation in the formation of words but had very few prefixes. In Indo-European such "compounds" represented two independent words, a situation still reflected in Hittite and the older Sanskrit of the Vedas the sacred books of the ancient Hindus and surviving in isolated remnants in Greek and Latin. An important technique of word formation in Indo-European was composition, the combining of two separate words or notions into a single word.

Such forms were and continue to be built on underlying simple sentences; an example in English would be "He is someone who cuts wood ," whence " He is a woodcutter. Modern English has many different types of compound, such as catfish, housewife, woodcutter, pickpocket, or blue-eyed; the same types may be found in the other Germanic languages and in Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, Celtic, and Slavic. The comparative study of Indo-European poetics has shown that such compounds were considered particularly apt for elevated, formal styles of discourse; they are a salient characteristic especially of Indo-European poetic language.

In addition, it is amply clear that in Indo-European society the names of individual persons—at least in the priestly and ruling or warrior classes—were formed by such two-member compounds. Greek names like Sophocles, "famed for wisdom," Celtic names like Vercingetorix, "warrior-king," Slavic names like Mstislav, "famed for vengeance," Old Persian names like Xerxes, "ruling men," and Germanic names like Bertram, "bright raven," are all compounds.

The type goes as far back as Proto-Indo-European, even if the individual names do not. English family names continue the same tradition with such types as Cartwright and Shakespeare, as do those of other languages, like Irish O' Toole, "having the people's valor. A word of caution should be entered about the semantics of the roots.

It is perhaps more hazardous to attempt to reconstruct meaning than to reconstruct linguistic form, and the meaning of a root can only be extrapolated from the meanings of its descendants. Often these diverge sharply from one another, and the scholar is reduced in practice to inferring only what seems a reasonable, or even merely possible, semantic common denominator.

The result is that reconstructed words, and particularly roots, are often assigned hazy, vague, or unspecific meanings. This is doubtless quite illusory; a portmanteau meaning for a root should not be confused with the specific meaning of a derivative of that root at a particular time and place. The apparent haziness in meaning of a given Indo-European root often simply reflects the fact that with the passage of several thousand years the different words derived from this root in divergent languages have undergone semantic changes that are no longer recoverable in detail.

The reconstruction of a protolanguage —the common ancestor of a family of spoken or attested languages—has a further implication. Language is a social fact; languages are not spoken in a vacuum but by human beings living in a society. When we have reconstructed a protolanguage, we have also necessarily established the existence of a prehistoric society, a speech community that used that protolanguage. The existence of Proto-Indo-European presupposes the existence, in some fashion, of a society of Indo-Europeans. Language is intimately linked to culture in a complex fashion; it is at once the expression of culture and a part of it.

Especially the lexicon of a language—its dictionary—is a face turned toward culture. Though by no means a perfect mirror, the lexicon of a language remains the single most effective way of approaching and understanding the culture of its speakers. As such, the contents of the Indo-European lexicon provide a remarkably clear view of the whole culture of an otherwise unknown prehistoric society. The evidence that archaeology can provide is limited to material remains.

But human culture is not confined to material artifacts. The reconstruction of vocabulary can offer a fuller, more interesting view of the culture of a prehistoric people than archaeology precisely because it includes nonmaterial culture. Consider the case of religion. To form an idea of the religion of a people, archaeologists proceed by inference, examining temples, sanctuaries, idols, votive objects, funerary offerings, and other material remains.

But these may not be forthcoming; archaeology is, for example, of little or no utility in understanding the religion of the ancient Hebrews. The notion of deity was therefore linked to the notion of the bright sky. For the Indo-Europeans the society of the gods was conceived in the image of their own society as patriarchal. The comparative method enables us to construct a basic vocabulary for the society of speakers of Proto-Indo-European that extends to virtually all aspects of their culture.

This basic vocabulary is, to be sure, not uniform in its attestation. Most Indo-European words are found only in some of the attested languages, not in all, which suggests that they may have been formed at a period later than the oldest common Indo-European we can reconstruct. There are also dialectal words that are limited in the area of their extension, as in the case of an important sociological term such as the word for "people," teut - , which is confined to the western branches: Italic, Celtic, and Germanic.

In cases such as these, where a word is attested in several traditions, it is still customary to call it Indo-European, even though it may not date from the remotest reconstructible time. It is in this sense, universally accepted by scholars, that the term Indo-European has been used in this Dictionary. We may examine the contents of this Indo-European lexicon, which aside from its inherent interest permits us to ascertain many characteristics of Indo-European society. It is remarkable that by far the greater part of this reconstructed vocabulary is preserved in native or borrowed derivatives in Modern English.

General Terms. It is appropriate to begin with a sampling of basic terms that have no special cultural value but attest to the richness of the tradition. All are widespread in the family. There are verbs meaning "to sit" sed- , "to lie" legh-, kei- 1 , and "to stand" st -. There are a number of verbs of motion, like g w - , "to come," ei- , "to go," ter - 2 , "to cross over," sek w - 1 , "to follow," kei- 2 , "to set in motion," and the variants of "rolling or turning motion" in wel- 2 , wer- 2 , and k w el- 1. The notion of carrying is represented by the widespread root bher- 1 BEAR 1 , found in every branch except Anatolian.

This root is noteworthy in that it formed a phrase n -men- bher- , "to bear a name," which is reconstructible from several traditions, including English. This phrase formed a counterpart to n -men- dh - , "to give a name," with the verb dh - , "to set, put," in Sanskrit, Greek, and Slavic tradition. The persistence of these expressions attests the importance of the name-giving ritual in Indo-European society.

For the notions of eating and drinking, the roots ed- and p i - are most widespread. A number of qualitative adjectives are attested that go back to the protolanguage. But normally adjectives denoting value judgments like "good" and "bad" are not widespread in the family and are subject to replacement; English good, Latin bonus, and Greek agathos have nothing to do with one another, and each is confined to its own branch of the family. The personal pronouns belong to the very earliest layer of Indo-European that can be reached by reconstruction.

Their forms are unlike those of any other paradigms in the language; they have been called the "Devonian rocks" of Indo-European. The cognate languages give evidence for demonstrative and interrogative pronouns. Both have also developed into relative pronouns in different languages. All the languages of the family show some or all of the Indo-European numerals. The language had a decimal system. For the numeral "one" the dialects vary. We have a root sem- 1 in some derivatives, while the western Indo-European languages Germanic, Celtic, and Latin share the form oi-no-.

No common form for "thousand" or any other higher number can be reconstructed for the protolanguage. The deeper origins of the names of the numbers are purely speculative. A large number of terms relating to time, weather, seasons, and natural surroundings can be reconstructed from the daughter languages, some of which permit certain inferences about the homeland of the Indo-European-speaking people before the period of migrations took them to the different localities where they historically appear.

There are several words for "year," words that relate to differing conceptions of the passage of time. The seasons were distinguished in Indo-European: ghei- , "winter," wes- , "spring," and sem- 2 , "summer. The lunar month was a unit of time. The other celestial bodies recognized were the sun, s wel- , and the stars, ster- 3. There is evidence from several traditions for similar designations of the constellation Ursa Major, though these may not go back to the earliest Indo-European times.

The movement of the sun dictated the names for the points of the compass. The setting sun furnished the word for "evening" and "west": wes-pero-. The most widespread of the words for "night" was nek w -t-. What is viewed, in speaking and in formulating thoughts, lS the 'configuration' ofthe events, the way in which they, as totalities or complex wholes, present themselves to the speaker and the hearer and the way in which they are important to them. Hence, 1 would suppose, the prevalen ce of aspectual categories in many languages.

Hence also the transition of their aspectual function into a more or less temporal role when temporal distinctions are introduced in a more 'modern' way. Morgen- stierne, in the Norsk Tidsskr. The Injunctive The 'injunctive' 1 has given rise to much controversial discussion among scholars. After having gradually been distinguished from other forms 2 this "past indicative without augment which serves as an imperative or subjunctive" was claimed for Orig.

Indo-European by Delbrck 3 and disconnected from the imperfect by Brugmann 4 , who was followed by most scholars in regarding it as a separate mode beside indicative, subjunctive and optative. Occasionally, and rightly, his sup- position that it was co-ordinated with the other moods was called in question 6. The conclusion drawn by the Father of l.

The name proposed by Delbrck "improper subjunctive" "unechter Konjunktiv" ; see Synt. Thumb, Hdb. Sanskrit, Heidelberg , p. See also V. Georgiev, in the Annuaire de l'universit de Sofia , 31,4, p. Historically speaking, the inj. Buck, Comp. Grammar of Greek and Latin, Chicago , p. However, Delbrck himself 2 made the suggestion that the 'injunctive' may have been "eine Abspaltung des Indikativs", because it seems to have arisen there "wo die Pro- hibitivnegation mit einer Prateritalform von punktueller Bedeutung sich verbunden hat": "punktuelle Bedeutung" since he was inclined to subscribe to Miller's3 view that the oldest aorist injunctives constituted the oldest mass of this category.

But this conclusion 4 is not final: the fact that in the and in the Gathas 6 ma only occurs in connection with the 'injunctive' does not mean that this formation originally did not occur unless it was accompanied by this particle. Delbrck' s suggestion was indeed dismissed by Streitberg whose remarkable opinions were unfortunately never published in full 7.

Without enter- ing, as far as 1 am able to see, into many details as to the difference be- tween present and aorist, he held that as an indo preso the inj. Thurneysen, KZ. In addition to these see also L. Renou, Les formes dites d'injonctif dans le in the Etrennes de linguistique offertes a E. Benveniste, Paris , p. See also E. Olafiin, in Language, 12, p. Miller, in the Amer. Journal of Phil. Reichelt, Awest. GraI3maml, Wtb. Bartholomae, Arische Forschungen, Halle ff. Streitberg, Indog.

Versammlung deutscher Philol. Avery, The unaugmented verb forms of the Rig- and Atharva-vedas, J. Hirt, Indog. The exposition given in his Indog. VI , p. The Injunctive 35 future 1 , maintaining that "Formen punktueller Bedeutung in zweierlei Weise verwendet werden konnen, entweder durch Bezeichnung del' Ver- gangenheit als Aoriste, oder als Futura". But here he incorrectly takes no account of psychological time, considering only the chronological sequence of moments in which the 'present' is an infinitesimal point. In a later publication 2 the same scholar greatly errs in holding that the Indian inj.

He alternatively proposed 3 to explain, the origin of this formation from forms which had been infinitives 01' j 'verbalia': "Finden wir doch den Inf. The last clause is, in my opinion, incorrecto In both explanations Hirt widely differs from those who like Macdonell 4 were inclined to maintain that the inj. The works of other scholars writing after Delbrck and before Miss Hahn can for the moment be passed ayer in silence 5.

While denying the existence of the inj. Most scholars will agree with her when she adds that the augment originally was a separate adverbial particle, but, whilst supposing the process of adding this element to have taken place "at a period when the difference between 'present' and 'past' tenses was a matter of aspect rather than of time", she does not explain what was at that period the difference between the forms with primary and those with secondary endings.

LikeWhitney 7 Miss Hahn seems, further, too positive in ascribing a past, a present, 01' another function to this category, not asking heTself whether part of the forms must not be regarded as neither past nor present in the sense of our terminology. Re- serving this point fol' consideration till the following pages we only express our dOl1jltS with regard to the argument derived from the comparatively small frequency of the present function: does this mean that this func- tion-if function it be-was less original?

Do the occasional cases of the 1 See also Reichelt, O. Macdonell, Vedic Grammar, StraI3burg , p. Pisani, Glottologia indeuropea, Torino , p. Krahe, Indog. Hahn, o. Whitney, A Sanskrit gramma1'5 Leipzig , p. Apart from this, the relation between the 'present' and the 'past' func- tions and the interchange of present and past tenses adduced by the authoress as an argument for her thesis that the entire tense system of the Vedic period was in a highly fluid state cannot be discussed in abstracto, that is to say: without studying the texts in which these forms occur 1.

The interchange of 'past' and 'present' in documents deal- ing with mythical events, which are timeless but may be believed to belong to the past, is quite another thing than the same phenomenon when found in a scientific history-book. According to Miss Hahn the use of the inj. But if we should be able to explain this fluidity, to show that there is some sense in it, this function of the inj. However, her subsequent reflections on a past I tied. It now remains for to expound my own views. Kurylowicz 2 established the indifferent character of the A vestan injunctive, which must sometimes be translated by a pasto tense e.

Il admet done toutes les nuances d'une phrase nominale. Renou 1 was, in my opinion, perfectly right in concluding from an examination of the facts that intheR. It has often been noticed 4 that after the mantra-period the injunctive has rapidly declined. In the meantime the 'progress of civilization', 01' the needs of practicallife, had accustomed the speakers of the living language to the use of tense forms and to a greater employment of those modal categories which contributed to the replacement of the ancient injunctive. The ancient Vedic prose was, notwithstanding its many stilistic peculiarities, founded on the spoken language in a later stage of its development than that which must be considered to have been the foundation of the idiom represented by the mantras.

Renou, Les formes dites d'injonctif cans le p. Whitney, 1. Kretschmer, in the Glotta, 20 , p. Bral, in the Mm. Paris, 11 , p.

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Nevertheless Delbrck attempted to distinguish between an "indicativische Masse" and a "nicht-indicati- vis che Masse", and other authors followed him. Even Renou 2 , though emphasizing the weakness of the modal and temporal force perceptible- "tantt c'est l'quivalent d'un prsent 'gnral' plutOt qu'actuel , tantOt c'est une forme semi-modale exprimant l'ventuel: intermdiaire entre indicatif et subjonctif The very 'syntactic instability of this formation results from its being funda- mentally different from our modal and temporal forms. We must avoid applying this qualification to the prehistoric structure of Indo-lranian.

Often the trains of thought of which these texts give evidence do not admit of any modal 01' temporal distinction in the more modern way. And although the use of the inj. I1SSl1ges in which it hadTts. Gonda, Notes on brahman, Utrecht , p. For Avestan, Reichelt, o. In ancient societies such as the Vedic and the prehistoric Indo-European the power of words which affirm 01' describe what the operator wants to happen is great.

By merely stating a fact, by calling a fact. Without explicitly couching his thoughts and desires in suppli- catory 01' imperative styll, in terms of wish, prayer, 01' incantation, he attempts to attain his ends by identifying objects of actual existence with what they"itre supposed 01' desired to be, by reciting stories relating to the fulfilment of a wish, by enumerating the deeds 01' epithets of a mighty being, by praising, i. In short he resorts to the power concealed in names and words 1. Thus when it reads AthV. At any rate a differentiationbetween "does not Description of mighty and import- ant entities often suffices to strengthen their power and to enable, 01' induce, them to be active for the benefit of those praying 01' reciting: the well-knoW11 Indian 'praising' 3.

In other places translations waver between a present and a past tense. However, in the sphere of thought of the ancient Indian poets the diffel'- 1 The reader may be referred to: G. Appel, De romanorum precationibus, GieJ3en , passim; G. Foucart, in Hastings' Encyc1. Webster, Magic, Stanford Cal. Meyer, Del' deutsche Volksaberglaube3, , ff. See also G. Whitney and Lanman translate: "may it not unclose" ete. Bowra, Heroic poetry, London , p. One might also eonsider the timeless eharaetel' of fairy-tales.

A mythical event, although it is localized in the past when presented in the form of a narrative, is always renewed and repeated; it really is actual. In myth the past and the present coincide, or the events take place in timeless space. Moreover, the mythical occurrence is repeated and re-actualized by the ritual acts which belong to the present or are described as such 1.

Thus the horses of the Maruts n Although such great mythic events as Indra's combat with Vrtra are as a rule referred to by past tenses cf. From the fact that the god is not infrequently described as slaying the demon or similar enemies in the present or is invoked to do so, it appears that he was regarded as constantly renewing the combat cf. It is therefore not surprising to see Geldner doubt whether the numerous injunctives in a text like 1;t V. This document, in which injunctives and imperatives alternate, can indeed be regarded as giving a fair idea of what the pre- historic use of verbal forms may have been: Indra is, in nominal con- structions, said to be king and protector, he is by means of imperatives requested to save those who pray, but his deeds and achievements are referred to by injunctives: rrJr aplJ "thou causest the waters to move", vrtrm.

The events described are, in fact, beyond time, yet actual. Geldner, Der Rig- Veda, l, Harvard , p. Geldner, Der Rig-veda, l, Cambridge Mass. The lnjunctive 41 flieBen mehrfach ineinander". In other cases the poets make mention of ritual acts or processes, the occurrence or efficacy of which likewise does not pertain to any fixed time: e. The mere reference to mighty beings or events which are con- sidered to be sources of fortune and prosperity, the mere invocation of divine favour, suffices to set power in motion: AthV.

From the extensive use of the inj. In many cases the old form was maintained. A more accurate reference to time would, in these passages alluding to creation and revelation, apparently be a superfluity, and in a sense inconsistent with the mythically timeless and eternal character of the facts referred to and the visionary way in which they are presented and described. Apart from the context, sometimes other words help to mark the time. It must however be remembered that in a large number of cases the injunctive alternates with other forms 2.

In the 1;tg- and Atharvasa:rp,- hitas taken as a whole, the flowering-age of the injunctive, which may have existed at a prehistoric period, already belonged to the pasto The conclusion that this form may, 01' must, be taken as having the same value as an imperative or other forms with which it is co-ordinated has indeed often been drawn. Reasoils of rhythm 01' versification, a predilection for traditional phrases and other stylistic factors may have induced poets to compose such lines as Ath V. Delbrck, Altind. Yet the question might arise, whether there was not a subtle difference between the inj.

Has the poet in sto 1 avoided using the opt. This is not to contend that such modifications as are expressed by those who possess a variety of modal and temporal forms are entirely missing in the speech of people who must 'manage with' injunctives 01' similar undifferentiated categories. As we have seen an indication of what is usually called the 'modal 01' temporal' force often lies in particles 01' other elements of the clause, in the order of words-an inj. The aboye formula pra vocam, for lllstance, is often accompanied by the particle nu which inter alia expresses the sense of "now, at once, now then" or similar 'stimulative or hortative indeclinabilia' and is also often found in connection with a subjunctive or an imperative 3 : cf.

Featured Work

Words denoting a particular moment or space of time may also do duty: J;tV. Similarly such particles as atha which serves to intro- 1 There is abundant evidence of interchange of the inj. Bloomfield and F. Edgerton, Vedic Variants, 1, PhiladelphIa , p. Horn, Sprachk6rper und Sprachfunktion, Berln , p. Fraenkel, I. Havers, Glotta 16 , p.

The pronoun ta- saJ:, etc. As already observed, an inj. But it can also occur elsewhere, e. Could the often monosyIlabic injunctive in the final position convey a certain emphasis 1 3 - In this connection the use of the adverbal 'prepositions' is also inter- esting. This class of words, though generaIly speaking mainly used to convey spatial ideas and to vivify or emphasize, as gesture-words, the conception of direction, are often, by their graphic and suggestive character, also employed so asto suggest, at the same time, 'aspectual, modal or temporal' notions 4.

In more or less exclamative clauses a single adverbial preposition can serve as an 'hortative' element: Z aAA; aya "up! It seems evident that the prepositions do not only fulfill these functions if "a verb of motion is to be supplied", but also in those cases in which they are accompanied by a neutral and in- determinate verbal formo J;tV. Those 'old injunctives' which 1 See e. Bloomfield, Indog. Schwyzer-Debrunner, Griech. Parigger, Aanschonweljkheidsdrang als factor bij de beteekenis-ontwikkelng del' Latijnsche praepositie, Thesis Utrecht , p.

Syntax, 1, p. Wackernagel, Vorlesungen ber Syntax, , Basel , p. L3 vahatam 4 asvina 5 yuvm 6 , which originally may have approx- imately meant: "towards l bring 4 vigour 3 t0 2 us 2 , O Asvins 5 , ye 6! L raym. It may parenthetically be remarked that the personal pronoun by adding an element of insistence, may in cases like the one under consider- ation have contributed to the development of the specialized functions of the injunctive.

In literary and modern Chinese prohibitions are formulated by means of special negatives. In Georgian a fact is denied by ara, a possibility by vera; nu expresses a prohibition. Wackernagel in his able discussion of the expressions for negative orders and prohibitions 2 seems to have been under a misapprehension in writing that in Anc.

Indian "bei V erboten in del' Regel nur Aoristformen des Injunktivs verwendet sind". HofmmID, in the Indogerm. Spitzer, Aufsatze zur romano Syntax und Stilistik, Halle , p. The Injlmctive 45 be disregarded l. In the ancient the phrase with t preso inj. It would furtherappear to me that these comparatively frequent m constructions contributed to the survival of the corresponding affirmative forms: Alnd.

Holtzmann, Grammatische,s aus dem Mahabharata, Leipzig , p. In later texts the preso becomes very mfrequent e. Although for an explanation development a description of the relevant facts would be needed, 1t mIght perhaps be surllllsed that a double set of forms carne to be superfluous as soon as the difference in function between present and aorist had become less pronounced for this point see Speyer, Sanskrit Syntax, ; the category which, in point of frequency, was by far the strongest, survived.

Otherwise Hirt, Indogerm. Hirt neither considered the dual forms nor such relcs of the 'injo' as Gr. Ll p. He is, moreover, inclined to regard the element -te as having arisen from a particle ibid. The form. Sturtevant, A comp. GraIllmar of the Hittite Language, Philadelphia , p. Jacobsohn, Kuhn's Zs. BTB -TB? Last but not least: lmperatlves ofthe 2 nd pl. In other functions-dismissing the augmentless imperfect--competitors were absent: the vague and indefinite injunctive had to abandon the field m favour of the more precise and differentiated indicative sub- optative and Although some rare instances?

They do not, however, explain why the secondary ,,:as added, nor do they consider the Sanskrit parallel. Kulkarni, Annals of the Bhandarkar Oro Res. Poona, 24, p. Brunot, Lapense et la langue Paris ' p. Spitzer, Italienische Umgangssprache, ' p. Although the verbal endings obviously serve to indicate person and diathesis and although 1 left the original nature of the distinction between primary and series undecided, some authors, among whom is Miss Rahn 2 , seem to suggest that there exists an essential connection be- tween the latter group and the conception of past time.

At any rate the American author do es not hesitate to associate the secondary endings of the optative-"though whether as cause 01' as effect it would be hard to say"-with the supposed "remoteness" ofthat category3 , which in her view served to express "remote futurity, 01' futurity thrown into the past" 4. The curious distribution of the endings-the optative going with the injunctive and the augmented tenses, and the primary endings being typical of the present indicative, with fuctuation in the sub- junctive-, was made a problem by Whitney5 and dismissed as insoluble by Delbrck6.

The distinct temporal value conveyed especiaHy by the augmented forms with secondary endings and then also by the unaug- mented past tenses could only exist in opposition to another temporal value borne by the forms with primary endings 7. At aH events it was the present indicative which was conspicuous by its personal endings, not the optative8.

Several forms of the imperative seem to have secondary endings See also D. Ohantraine, Grammaire homri- que, II, Paris , p. Benveniste, Prtrit et optatif en indo-europen, Bull. See also W. Syntax, II, p. B We shall have to discuss the subjunctive on p. L 48 The Indo-European moods something to do with the 'idea' conveyed by the indicative: actuality and the psychological present time. A large number of views and observations have been published on the subject of the original function of the optative. The main crucial point concerned the chronological relation between the optative of wish and the potentiaP : Delbrck 2 , admitting that he was not able convin- cingly to explain the development of the latter from the former, pre- ferred to treat both functions as originally lndo-European, although the essential and primary task of this mode must, in his view, have been to express wish, the subjunctive expressing the notion of "will".

For a definition of "will" and "wish" he referred to the philosopher Herbart 3 , who asserted that "Wunsch ist del' gelinderte Ausdruck fr dasjenige Streben, was wir Was man verlangt, das glaubt man aus irgendeinem Grunde erreichen zu konnen, was man will, dessen Erreichung setzt man bestimmt voraus. Napoleon wollte als Kaiser, und begehrte auf St. Wer da spricht: ich will hat sich des Zuknftigen schon im Gedanken bemachtigt; er sieht sich schon vollbringend, besitzend, genieBend.

Thus Brugmann was ofthe opinion that either of "the two original functions" of the optative may represent the starting-point 4 , and one of the most recent grammars, the Greek syntax of Schwyzer-Debrunner 5 , shares this scepticism 6. The opinion 1 For a summary of views see Hahn, o. I cannot agree with F. Householder who in reviewing Miss Hahn's book Language, 30, p. See especially Del- brck, Altind. Syntax, n, p. Kuypers: J. Herbart, Psychologie, n, ; Lehrbuch zur Psychologie 3 , p.

WeiJ3, Herbart und seine Schule I wonder whether the many linguists who up to Miss Hahn, following in Delbrck's footsteps, discussed the concepts of "wish" and "will" have ever looked up in Herbart what the father of l. Schwyzer-Debrunner, o. Other scholars gave up any attempt to find a 'Grundbedeutung', preferring such general formulas as: "der Opto ist der Modus der Vorstellung" Khner-Gerth, Ausf. The Optative 49 held by Hirtl cannot convine e me: the opto which originally was "timeless" and expressive of the present, could-which i's correct-also refer to past and future prOct3SSes; the future being often uncertain a potential could in the case mentioned last, easily develop.

The key to the problem of the original character and essence of the l. Primitive man tries to find an explanation fol' all the happenings in his environment without knowing the facts and relations discovered by modern science. Although these powers can be in- fluenced and set in motion by man, they are vel'y often supposed to be controlled by gods, demons 01' othel' beings which can be influenced by ritual acts 3.

The style and the tenor of the wol'ds and utterances pro- nounced on these occasions are not dissimilar to those of the uttel'ances resorted to in imploring and entreating fellow-men. As primitive man is deeply convinced of the gl'eat and often creative power of the spoken word his word can in his opinion influence the unseen powel's just as it can affect the thought 01' action of human beings 4.

Drawing no shal'p dividing line between himself, other beings, and in- animate objects, between natural and supl'anatural phenomena, knowing no boundal'ies between the possible and the impossible, primitive man is apt to project himself, his emotions and aspirations into his surroundings 1 Hirt, Indog. See also Lingua, IV, p. Van der Leeuw, Religion, p. Ebert, Real1. Webster, Magic, Stanford Oal. Gonda, Notes on brahman, Utrecht , passim. Whether he feels himself depend- ent on foreign-human or other-power or whether it stands.

And he knows that also in daily life there is power in wishes, threats and commands, even unuttered. In uttering a wish or in opposing his will to another's our distinction between realizable and unrealizable wishes or commands is unessential. Or rather, his formulations about the desirable, about what is to occur is to be avoided, or to be expected do not transgress the range of is according to his primitive logic, possible, without taking into account what would be really possible.

So the belief in unseen powers, which may however, mamfest them- selves, and magic and its corollaries, witchcraft, certain forms of mysticism etc. They are lived rather than reasoned about. Experiences of every kind are often results of a coincidence which science must leave unexplained, or which we ascribe to providence, chance or bad luck.

The occurrence of unexpected, undesired, unexplicable events, the realization ofpossibilities of any kind depends, according to the philosophi of the.

Re can counteract it by opposing his own will to the other's, just as he opposes, in daily life, his will to that of his fellow-man. But, being unable to test his theol'es by scientific experiments he believes power or powerful beings to be omnipotent. The will of the man who knOWS how to realize it can, in principIe, effect anything.

Any wish is within reasonable limits determined by tradition and common sense 1 a possibility. While believing so, primitive man' does not as a rule engage in arguments about abstractions and in disinterested discussions about remote possibilities. Apart from a few exceptional persons, who so to represent science in pre-scientific milieus, he does not often need speClal- ized conditional, hypothetical, potential and other verb forms and clauses. The Australian Aranda has no real equivalents of "to hope" 01" "to despair"; he only "expects" 2.

Even the Greek is not only translatable by our "hope", but also by "expectation" cf. Plato, Leg. Allier, Le non-oivilis et nous, Paris , p. The Optative 51 opinion, hape, thought" in M. Dutch waen , "to think, believe" in English ween ; the Irish doehus "hope, expectation, supposi- tion" is del'ved froID doig, doieh "likely" 1. The words for "will" and "wish"-to return once more to Delbrck's famous distinction between the subj. The majority of the ancient l. Words for "possible", properly referring to what is "practicable by those who are able and competent", rather than "what may or may not happen" 01' "what is capable of existing", are in a significant way not infrequently related to, 01' identical with, terms for "being powerful, able, mighty": Skt.

So, if a prehistoric 01' protohistoric Indo-European, whether he ad- dressed men 01' the unseen, expressed himself by means of an indicative, the process referred to was to his mind actual, even if, from an objective point of view it was not: by using the indicative the ancients, like men living under modern circumstances when their emotion and phantasy have a considerable influence upon their speech 3 could visualize what is not actual as if it were really existent at the moment of speaking. When in the Atharvaveda it, e. By resorting to an imperative he pronounces a command: st.

The subjunctive, to which we shall have to revert, served him to what may broadly speaking be called visualization. The optative, it would appear to me, enables the speaker to introduce the elements of visualization and contingency, the latter being, in my opinion, the main character of this mood. In using this form the ancient Indo-European took, with regard to the process referred to and which existed in his mind, the possibility of non-occurrence into account; he visualized this process as non -actual: it is possible, 01' it is wished for, or desirable, 01' generally advisable 01' recommended and 1 See H.

Pdersen, Vergl. This condition or other event may be expressed, be implicit or even be vaguely or generally inherent in the situation. If this hypothesis be correct it becomes also clear why the opto of wish cupitive originally referred to realizable as well as unrealizable wishes. Being the mode of eventuality the opta- tive also renders useful services to those who want to be guarded in what they sayo Whether in a particular case an optative is 'potentiar, 'general', expressive of some wish or other, depends, to a considerable extent, on the situation or the context, and if such should be resorted to, on other syntactical means order of words, particles, conjunctions etc.

Although part of these functions or 'nuances' of the opto are too common to need much illustration, it may be of some use to give a some- what circumstantial account, since we break with the traditional presen- tation of the relevant facts 1. We shall however confine our examples to a limited number 2. According to Pal. L nu tarkam adhiyiya "apprendrai-je la logique?

It is clear that in all these cases the process is non-actual, but contingent 4. Thus we might translate TS. Leumann- Hofmann, 0. Boehtlingk, Pa:r;lni's Grammatik, Leipzig It may be added that this idiom is also found in Sanskrit cf. A request, stimulation, order is expressed by sentences like the following: A Tavr 11xtAijt "you could speak thus to A. The 'difference' between this 'adhortative' opt.

Download Character Of The Indo European Moods With Special Regard To Greek And Sanskrit 1956

It is more polite to express oneself in such a way that the person addressed can, at least to the letter of the request, omit performing it. An imperative is, however, not rarely preferred when there is no time to lose, when the person addressed should react immediately: cf. As fiu as the opto is concerned 1 recall such frequent constructions as Germ. Sophie, man kann jetzt die Kartoffeln schlen; Fr.

In German this use of the opto has led to its be- coming a "courteous imperative", in Slavonic it has even replaced the 1 For this voluntative opto see F. Slotty, Del' Gebrauch des Konjunktivs und Optativs in den griech. Dialekten, Gottingen , p. Sorne Avestan instances may be found in Reichelt, O. This use of the opto seems to be mostly taken as cupitive in character e. Schwyzer- Debrunner, 0.

However, the 'other standpoint' might also be defended cf. Khner-Gerth, 0. Compare also suoh phrases as the Engl. In addressing the unseen powers for instanoe Vedio man often used the imp. In Homer the imp. Iliad 54, Od. Various explanations have been proposed, alI of them, however, being one-sided: K. Ziegler, De preoationum apud Graeoos formis quaestiones seleotae, Thesis Breslau before the 5 th oent. Waokernagel, K. A ff. Hofmann, Lat. Umgangsspraohe 2 , Heidelberg , p. In appeals and supplioations the imp. The opto is often but not always: r 22 etc. In oases suoh as B ; t the opto expresses the aboye nualloes; it may sometimes be due to a tendenoy to avoid the-psyohologioalIy rather than magioalIy?

In a prayer beginning with Mre the speaker sometimes adds more speoified and partioular wishes by means of an opt. The opto is often not the 2 nd person and the question may be posed whether a direot address in the 2nd pers. A ; see e. Ohantraine, O. We are for the rest reminded of the suppletive relation between impero and subj.

Dutoh leef "Jife", but zy leve; Meillet-Benveniste, Gramm. BalIy, Linguistique gnrale et ling. The Optative 55 however, genera11y speaking no use in attempting to distinguish between a cupitive or a potential function of the mood in these expressions; in translating sometimes "would", sometimes "could" might be preferred. Some authors considered this 'adhortative' as a special case ofthe poten- tial, others as developed from the cupitive; it would appear to me that this controversy is futile.

If, in Sanskrit a word for "hope, expectation, desire, wish" asarqsi is added, the opto is obligatory Pal.. In sentences introduced by katham "how" and expressing disapproval the opto and indico are rivals Pal.. If, in Sanskrit, the sentence is introduced by the interrogative pronoun 01' one of its derivatives, lill opt. K A sentence introduced by jatu "at a11" 01' yad "that", the verb of which is in the opt. Such phrases as uta lcu1'yat mean "he will no doubt do" Pal..

Like the other phl'ases mentioned in this paragraph the pl'edication uta 7curyat is con- tingent in chal'acter. The same mood can help to give uttel'ance to doubt 01' delibel'ation: :? In cases like KaI. In Gothic: John 12, 27 va qipau? Greek instances of this use are not frequent, cf. Compare in Avestan V. This also brings us to such Skt. The indicative phrase ya'rfb referring to an actual "him- who" cf.

In these cases the opto might also be translated by the Fr. Hermann quoted in Th. Kiessling's edition, Leipzig , p. Of course this difference may have become obscured in individual cases. Opto im Sanskrit U. Streitberg, Gothisches Elementarbuch 5 , Heidelberg , p. The Optative 57 may come 7 as guest 5 "; Mbh. It rather gives utterance to the feeling or opinion on the. There is no sharp line between this use and the concessive opt. Although this nuance has often been considered a weak wish 3 , I would prefer to regard it as an expression of indifference, acquiescence and surrender; the speaker gives up any positive attitude towards the content of the predication.

The same nuance of "1 don't 1 don't care, let one Pseudo iratus sit. We might subjoin here the case mentioned by Pal.. In Skt. Neither does it in the cases covered by Pal.. This mood can also help to express a merely logical possibility which is not confronted with any reality. K "My friends, is there then no man who would go among the Trojans, if so be Khner-Gerth, o. Elsewhere the same mood is used when a state 01' action is supposed to set in if specified conditions are fulfilled 01' when another action has taken place: o "so may Zeus grant The latter predi- cation is contingent; whether it will actually set in, depends on other events.

It is neither cupitive nor potential in the strict sense of the termo If one would like to apply one of the traditional terms, "conditional" could serve best. In cases like the fo11owing a hypothesis is implied: Maitr. In Latin we might compare Cic. There are many parallels of this "Aufforderung 01': supposition statt einer Bedingung".

Sentences expressing a supposition, proposal, suggestion, consent, concession, stimulation, 01' condition are often asyndetically fo11owed 01' sometimes preceded by another sentence with which they form a logical whole: Lat. The verb is often in the imperative: Lat. A 29 seo' aTae TOl. In Ancient Indian a condition is often implied in a sentence containing this mood: SatBr. Paul, Prinzipien der Sprachgeschichte 5 , p. Debrunner, O. Erdmann, Grundzge der deutschen Synta:x: l, Stuttgart , p. The Optative 59 kirp,l mama 2 tata7y,3 syad 4 iti 5 "what l would 4 12 get 4 1"5 sc.

The opto can also occur to give utterance to a subjective supposition: Skt. The process can be imaginary: the imagined past is expressed in the Brhatkathasl. In the Romeric sentences introduced by eSta "easily, lightly"-cf. The adverb eSta suggests the speaker's conviction that the positive issue must be empha- sized, is to be expected and, as soon as it has occurred, can be affirmed 2.

Needless to say that the frequent occurrence of an adverb in the sentences under consideration can help us more exactly to determine the shade of meaning conveyed by the sentence in itsentirety. The word eea emphasizes that according to the spaker the predication can easily be imagined. In a similar way TXa helps to express any contingency from 1 Chantrq,ine, o. Stahl, Kritisch. Gildersleeve, Am. In passages such as Aesch. The adverbs can however also be omitted: Epich. Compare, in Sanskrit, Kath- sarits. In negative 01' inter- rogative sentences the opto may indicate improbability 01' impossibility: Mbh.

Occasionally this mood helps to express what may hereafter prove to be true 01' to have been true: Plato Symp. For the "potential' value compare also, in Latin, Plaut. This use of the "unqualified" optative must be regarded ancient, because it is also found in Sanskrit A vestan German and , , , apart from Homer, in various Greek dialects; as it also occurs in the post-classical Greek of the Hellenistic period, it may be said to have been an element in the living language of the Greeks 3. Vandaele, L'optatif grec, Paris , 13; J.

Moulton, Ein. Debrunner, Grammatik des neutestamentlichen Griechisch 6 , G6ttingen , ff. Jannaris, A historical Greek grammar, London , ; C. Harsing, De optativi in chartis aegyptiis usu, Bonn , p. The Optative 61 We now come to what has not incorrectly been called the "Optativ del' gemilderten Behauptung", which enables the person speaking to assume a cautious attitude, to make statements with reserve, to empha- size the subjective character of his pronouncements, to be guarded in his speech, to leave the actuality of the predication undecided.

In Sans- krit this use is very frequent: Mbh. Thus this mood may be said to represent "a weak future 01' present indicative". In German translations "wohl" might be added: agacchet "er wird wohl kommen bestimmt weiB ich es zwar nicht ": a typically contingent predication.

Epub Character Of The Indo European Moods With Special Regard To Greek And Sanskrit 1956

This use of the mood, becoming more and more colourless, has largely contributed to its assuming the character of a variant of the indicative in later literature, preferred for metrical 01' other reasons1. By these constructions the speaker is enabled to desist from offering an opinion on the actuality of the process.

In the Attic dialect this use led to the so-called optativus urbanitatis: in pronouncing an assertion 01' opinion one prefers, for reasons of politeness, courtesy, deference, 01' unpretentiousness the "potential" opt. The phrase Xen. Indian instan ces of the more polite and deferential ' 'rcksichts- voller" opto are not wanting: Mbh. This idiom seems to be determined by the same mood and considerations of courtesy which induce Frenchmen to say il peut avoir soixante ans "he may be sixty", and lead English people to prefer a polite I'm atraid 1 don't know to a blunt 1 don't know.

The courteous opto is not foreign to the Slavonic languages either. In Sanskrit this non-compromising opto is also used to refer, in a cau- tious way, to future acts 01' events: Mbh. This idiom is also "weakened" into signifying what 1 Already in a late Vedic text Vaikh. Caland, Vai- khanasasmartastram, Calcutta , p. The lndo-European moods may be, what is likely or usual 1 and so even becomes a softened state- ment of what is.

On the other hand, a phrase lke Kal. The next point to be considered concerns a use of the optative which has given much trouble to those who cling to the time-honoured alter- native: cupitive or potential, to wit the optativus iterativus. Thus Jespersen 2 , while deeming it correct to say that the moods express certain attitudes of the mind of the speaker towards the contents of the sentence, continues: "in some cases the choice of the mood is determined not by the attitude of the actual speaker, but by the character of the clause itself and its relation to the main nexus on which it is dependent".

It seems warranted to suggest the following explanation. The opto is often used in connection with processes which are not always, or not in all respects, actual, pro- cesses which take place intermittently. Recalling the aboye ahar-ahar dadyat "one should give every day" we might also draw attention to instances such as Asv. Keith, in the. Ramstedt, Einf. Altaische Sprachw. Yespersen, Philosophyofgrammar, p. The same use of the "relative pronoun" and optative in "relative sentences of general import" is found in A vestan 1.

In this connection the use of the opto in similes and comparisons of a general character is also worth mentioning: Ai. It may, in brief, be said that the relative sentences of a general charac- ter have a predilection for the opt. I T6v "whomsoever T. The opto also appears in descriptions of indefinite frequency or quantity, e. I vturov, onn6Ts UOV! If, however, the person speaking regards "die Mehrheit gleichartiger Falle als ein einheitliches Ganzes It has repeatedly, and correctly, been observed that the iterative nuance is not conveyed by the optative, but by the verb of the principal clause, which in Homer is mostly a form in -aus, by other words such as ast, BuaToTS, the general 8ans, on6Ts etc.

Khner-Gerth; o. Allen, Trans. Goodwin, Greek moods and tenses 2 , , p. The fact that the verb of the principal clause is as a rule in a past tense has no doubt conditioned the relation of these clauses to the past 2. Besides, alargepart ofthose events 01' actions which occur repeat- edly 01' usually, 01' which are qualified by adverbs meaning "over and ayer again", belong, in the experience of daily life, as a rule to the pasto It may be remembered that it was in Greek especially the imperfect which developed an "iterative" 01' "habitual" function 3 : K 78 'wade Verbal forms 01' phrases denoting habitual 01' repeated action are not seldom mainly 01' almost exclusively limited to the past 4 : thus, in connection with pura "formerly" 01' sma an Ancient Indian present has rather more definitely the value of an habitual past tense: jayanti sma "they were wont to win"; the Engl.

We might for instance compare such passages as Jaim. Hermann, Die Nebensatze in den griech. Dialekt- inschriften, Leipzig-Berlin , p. Pisani, Indogerm. The Optative 65 sind 9 , nicht1 ehren 11 r' Caland ; Gaut. The iterative-durative function of this mood was for Khotanese estab- lished by Baileyl. In Ossetic 2 we find such sentences as: az dar in id zayina "1 used 01': made it a habit to say him".

The process referred to by the optative, if realized, often belongs, from the objective point of view of time, to the future, but this mode itself is, as far as 1 am able to see, indifferent as to the concept of time. A similar mild assertion 01' measured pronouncement with regard to the past: Hdt. I 5. The process referred to by the opto is sometimes explicitly situated in the present time: B 12 vvv ye usv sAot 1t6AW "now he may take the city"; A ; cf. Bailey, Bull. School Oro and Afr. Soco , Asica, p. Miller, Ossetisch, Grundr.

Neisser, Zs. Iranistik, 5 , p. As was recognized by many scholars litera- ture: Renou, Gramm. Journal Amer. Oro Soc. It rnay be asked whether this idiom has not arisen from the above use of the opto One may compare the use of the opto "instead of a mild indicative" which resulted in interchangeability.

A mild assertion with regard to the future: Mbh. There has been much discussion among scholars on a number of A vestan forms "die wie Optative aussehen, aber prateritale Bedeutung haben" 2. For instance: Y. We might suppose the force of the opto to be: " as long as Y.

The same yavata is followed by the indo preso Y. In the other contexts this Avestan opto likewise refers to mythical occurrences, which may have seemed to the poet to be of such a remote antiquity that he hesitated to use a past tense 4. With regard to the OPers. A 1, 50 13 which is an opto of ava-jan- "to kill" opinions have diverged: sorne scholars following the parallel versions translated this form by a past tense e.

Benveniste 5 : "il tuait [habituellement]" , others as an opto WeiB- 1 See ahoye, p. See also Benveniste, O. Bartholomae's view that the relevant forms really are athematio aorists Stud. Tedesco, Zs. Sogdian , H. School Oro Lang. Pedersen, Tocharisoh, Kobenhavn , p. Society, London , p. The Optative 67 bach 1 "el' michte titen".

W ould we be correct in interpreting this passage as follows1: "Nobody took the risk of dethroning Gaumta; the gentry felt much fear of him; he was believed to kill to have killed, 01': to kill in the future; or: in their opinion he killed, had killed, 01': would kill etc. It is however evident that this meaning if it happens to be what the author intended could easily develop into an "habitual past". Weillbach, Die Keilinschriften der Achameniden, Leipzig , p.

Benveniste, Transaotions of the Philo1. The function of the ancient l. Subjunctive Much has been written on the 'Grund- und Urbedeutung' of the l. Whereas Brugmann, though distinguishing for practical reasons the voluntative, deliberative and prospective subjunctive 1 , was sceptical with regard to the possibility of finding an original function of this category2 , other scholars tended to regard, with Delbrck 3 , the volitional use as the source of the others 4.

Many authorities however foster the opinion that the 'prospective' function must have been more original. Besides arguments which in themselves and as far as they go are valid-this function "has fallen into disuse" in the post-Romeric Greek main clauoe-, many reasonings have been adopted to convince opponents, which rest on an inadequate philological interpretation of the documents 01' are inspired by what would appear to be a persistent confusion of ideas 5. In contradistinction to Mutzbauer 6 , who held "die 1 Other authors prefer to distinguish between two main funotions: of.

Delbruok, p. Notioe, however, the observation: "daJ3 man auoh anders einteilen kann, ohne unrichtig einzuteilen, ist unbedingt zuzu- geben".

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Thumb, in Brugrnann-Thumb, Gesoh. Stahl, Krit. Such remarks as "Beim Futurum ist die voluntative Bedeutung offenbar sekundar; dem entspricht es, wenn beim Konjunktiv dasselbe von del' futuralen gilt" do not help us very muoh; Stahl moreover disregards the fact that a prehistoric 'future' and the traditional 'future' of our school grammars are not identical.

Slotty, Gebrauoh des Konj. Sommer, 1. It cannot be our task here to repeat all arguments of former soholars against those standpoints whioh may be regarded as modifioations of this point of view: whereas, for instanoe, J. Jolly, Ein Kapitel vergl. Syntax, Mnchen , p. Mutzbauer, Die Grundbed. The Subjunctive 69 Vorstellung del' Erwartung" the "Grundbedeutung" of the subjunctive, deriving any Greek uses from this concept, most of these scholars con- sidered it a "future" 1 sorne of them even denying any difference between it and a real future 2.

After the expositions given in the preceding chapters it may suffice to observe here that, given the fact that in the early documents the main functions of this mood, as we shall see here- after, are of wide distribution, this functional variety must decidedly be regarded as a prehistoric feature in Indo-European. Applying the commonly accepted rules of comparative reasoning it must be attributed to the Orig. Indo-European might have been. Any attempt to elucidate the chronological relations of these functions is therefore of a speculative character.

Rence the psychological, 01' more 01' less philo- sophical arguments adduced to substantiate quasi-historical theories with regard to the priority of volition, "Erwartung", "ventualit" 01' other functions. Under these circumstances, it would in the opinion of the present author be preferable to abstain, here also, from attempting to trace, in the traditional way, a process of prehistorical growth-including, inter alia, such 'problems' as the chronological relation between the ex- pression of "Aufforderung" and "Willenserldarung"3 -and to con- centrate our efforts upon the problem of the eS5ential character of this category, underlying all its particular functions, which then must be considered to be aspects of the central function, determined by context, situation, meaning of the verb, modulation of the sentence and similar factors.

Before entering into details it may be useful briefly to state what would be the view of the character of this mood defended in the following pages. Its general function may, if 1 am not mistaken, have been to indicate that the speaker views the process denoted by the verb as existing in his mind 01' before his mental eyes, 01' rather: as not yet having a higher degree of being than mental existence. The subjunctive, 1 See e. Hammerschmidt, ber die Grundbed. Whitney, A Sanskrit Grammar , "there is nothing in the earliest employment of these modes imper.

I also refer to Hahn, 0. I and n. Sohwyzer-Debnmner, 1. Synta:x:, p. Waltel', Die Grundbed. A process in the subj. There is, however, no question of contingency3.

The Character of the Indo-European Moods (Gonda)

Whether the speaker expects this realization, desires it, fears it, orders 01' hopes it 01' whether he merely sees it before his mental eyes, is a matter of indifference 4. Any implication and specialization: wish, adhortation, deliberation, 'anticipation' 5 depends on circumstances: context, situation, intonation, meaning of the verb etc.

We should not forget that 1 Khner-Gerth, o. Pei and F. Gaynor, A dictionary of linguistics, New York , p. Atkinson, The Greek language 2 , London , p. The words "there is no question of contingency" in the text must be taken to mean that the subj. Stahl, o. Hale, The anticipatory subjunctive in Greek and Latin, Stud. Whereas for instance such words as the Dutch zullen, the Engl.

Complications may arise from the fact that questions do not always follow the same rules as assertions, that negative sentences do not always confo1'1n to positive statements, that modesty, emotions, the use of indirect speech often make their infiuence felt. The Subjunctive 71 what we call the 'subjunctive' is the result of a generalization by which we endeavour to include in a single idea a11 that is common to a great variety of individual forms, each of which has its own meaning and usage.

Each subj. As long as the preponderatingly 'modal' and 'aspectual' view of pro- ces ses denoted by verb forms continued this character of the forms under consideration was maintained, but as soon as temporal distinctions increased in importance, the 'subjective' subjunctive denoting what the speaker saw in his mind's eye, was apt to develop into a more 'objective' future referring to what was to come after the moment of speaking2. Thus, it would appear to me, many subj. Also where it joined other forms to form a complete paradigm: thus the so-called first persons of the imperative in classical Sanskrit are nothing but a renll1.

As a result of the inftuence o various factors-context, person, meaning of the verb etc. Thus the decline of the subj. Morris, The subjunctive in Plautus, Amer. There is-as we have already seen-no denying that, if we think in temporal concepts, the processes referred to by a subjunctive should they be realized, generally speaking, belong to a time subsequent to the moment of speakingl.